Feasibility study of perceived exertion and heart rate of children with ASD during swimming
Keywords:autism spectrum disorder, swimming, aquatics, heart rate, perceived exertion, physical activity
AbstractThis study explored the feasibility of manual heart rate and the Pictorial Children’s Effort Rating Table (PCERT) to measure moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixteen children with ASD participated in weekly, 30-minute Sensory Enhanced Aquatics swimming lessons. Swim instructors measured heart rate, and swimmers rated their physical activity levels using the PCERT. Results showed swimmers’ heart rate and perceived exertion significantly increased from the beginning to the end of lessons. However, both measures were difficult to implement, indicating they may not be feasible for this population. Future research should investigate alternative objective measures to quantify MVPA with the ASD population with use of devices such as the Garmin Swim, Fit Bit, or Actigraph.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Healthy People 2020 Topics & Objectives: Physical Activity. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2017. Available at https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/physical-activity. Accessed February 10, 2019.
US Department of Health and Human Services: 2008 Physical activity guidelines for Americans: Be active, healthy and happy! 2008. Available at http://www.health.gov/paguidelines. Accessed January 10, 2019.
Stanish HI, Curtin C, Must A, et al.: Physical activity levels, frequency, and type among adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017; 47(3): 785-794.
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013.
Lawson LM, Foster L: Sensory patterns, obesity, and physical activity participation of children with autism spectrum disorder. Am J Occup Ther. 2016; 70(5): 7005180070p1-8.
Provost B, Lopez BR, Heimerl S: A comparison of motor delays in young children: Autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and developmental concerns. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37(2): 321-328.
Srinivasan SM, Pescatello LS, Bhat AN: Current perspectives on physical activity and exercise recommendations for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Phys Ther. 2014; 94(6): 875-889.
Pan C-Y, Frey GC: Physical activity patterns in youth with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006; 36(5): 597-606.
Devine MA, Ripp JAC: The role of therapeutic recreation with people on the autism spectrum. Ther Recreation J. 2017; 51(2): VII.
Carter MJ: Supporting individuals with autism spectrum disorder in recreation. Ther Recreation J. 2015; 49(2): 193.
Mische Lawson L, Foster L, Harrington MC, et al.: Effects of a swim program for children with autism spectrum disorder on skills, interest, and participation in swimming. Am J Recreat Ther. 2014; 13(2): 17-27.
Fragala-Pinkham MA, Haley SM, O’Niel ME: Group swimming and aquatic exercise programme for children with autism spectrum disorders: A pilot study. Dev Neurorehabil. 2011; 14(4): 230-241.
Yilmaz I, Yanardag˘ M, Birkan B, et al.: Effects of swimming training on physical fitness and water orientation in autism. Pediatr Int. 2004; 46(5): 624-626.
Pan C-Y: Effects of water exercise swimming program on aquatic skills and social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism. 2010; 14(1): 9-28.
Prupas A, Harvey WJ, Benjamin J: Early intervention aquatics: A program for children with autism and their families. J Phys Educ Recreat Dance. 2006; 77(2): 46-51.
Vonder Hulls DS, Walker LK, Powell JM: Clinicians’ perceptions of the benefits of aquatic therapy for young children with autism: A preliminary study. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2006; 26(1-2): 13-22.
Oftedal S, Bell KL, Mitchell LE, et al.: A systematic review of the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity measures in young children with a motor disability. Int J Pediatr. 2012; 2012: 976425.
Pitetti KH, Beets MW, Combs C: Physical activity levels of children with intellectual disabilities during school. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41(8): 1580-1586.
Yelling M, Lamb KL, Swaine IL: Validity of a pictorial perceived exertion scale for effort estimation and effort production during stepping exercise in adolescent children. Eur Phys Educ Rev. 2002; 8(2): 157-175.
Aleksandrovic M, Jorgic B, Block M, et al.: The effects of aquatic activities on physical fitness and aquatic skills in children with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Facta Univ Ser Phys Educ Sport. 2016; 13(3): 351-362.
Moore CG, Carter RE, Nietert PJ, et al.: Recommendations for planning pilot studies in clinical and translational research. Clin Transl Sci. 2011; 4(5): 332-337.
Dunn W: Performance of typical children on the sensory profile: An item analysis. Am J Occup Ther. 1994; 48(11): 967-974.
Breslin CM, Rudisill ME: The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2011; 28(4): 342-353.
Dunn W, Cox J, Foster L, et al.: Impact of a contextual intervention on child participation and parent competence among children with autism spectrum disorders: A pretest-posttest repeated-measures design. Am J Occup Ther. 2012; 66(5): 520-528.
Lawson LM, Foster L, Harrington M, et al.: Effects of a swim program for children with autism spectrum disorder on skills, interest, and participation in swimming. Am J Recreat Ther. 2017; 13(2): 17-27.
Oh S, Licari M, Lay B, et al.: Effects of teaching methods on swimming skill acquisition in children with developmental coordination disorder. Int J Aquat Res Educ. 2011; 5(4): 432-448.
Yanardag M, Akmanoglu N, Yilmaz I: The effectiveness of video prompting on teaching aquatic play skills for children with autism. Disabil Rehabil. 2013; 35(1): 47-56.
American Heart Association: All about heart rate (pulse). 2019. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/the-facts-about-high-blood-pressure/allabout-heart-rate-pulse. Accessed February 10, 2019.
Center for Disease Control: National health and nutrition examination survey: Physical examination procedure manual. 2007. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_07_08/manual_pe.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2019.
Ostchega Y, Porter KS, Hughes J, et al.: Resting pulse rate reference data for children, adolescents, and adults: United States, 1999-2008. Natl Health Stat Report. 2011; (41): 1-16.
Burlingame J, Blaschko TM: Assessment Tools for Recreational Therapy and Related Fields. 4th ed. Enumclaw, WA: Idyll Arbor, 2009.
Eston RG, Lamb KL, Bain A, et al.: Validity of a perceived exertion scale for children: A pilot study. Percept Mot Skills. 1994; 78(2): 691-697.
Roemmich JN, Barkley JE, Epstein LH, et al.: Validity of PCERT and OMNI walk/run ratings of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38(5): 1014-1019.
Portney LG: Foundations of Clinical Research: Applications to Practice. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company, 2009.
Sullivan GM, Feinn R: Using effect size—Or why the P value is not enough. J Grad Med Educ. 2012; 4(3): 279-282.
Wong C, Odom SL, Hume KA, et al.: Evidence-based practices for children, youth, and young adults with autism spectrum disorder: A comprehensive review. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015; 45(7): 1951-1966.
Benelli P, Ditroilo M, De Vito G: Physiological responses to fitness activities: A comparison between land-based and water aerobics exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2004; 18(4): 719-722.
McKenna PE, Glass A, Rajendran G, et al.: Strange words: Autistic traits and the processing of non-literal language. 2015; 45(11): 3606-3612.
Raffaelli M, Crockett LJ, Shen Y-L: Developmental stability and change in self-regulation from childhood to adolescence. J Genet Psychol. 2005; 166(1): 54-76.
Stodden DF, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ, et al.: A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest. 2008; 60(2): 290-306.
MacDonald M, Esposito P, Ulrich D: The physical activity patterns of children with autism. BMC Res Notes. 2011; 4(1): 422.
Sorensen C, Zarrett N: Benefits of physical activity for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: A comprehensive review. Rev J Autism Dev Disord. 2014; 1(4): 344-353.
How to Cite
Copyright 2000-2023, Weston Medical Publishing, LLC
All Rights Reserved