A relationship between US healthcare worker smallpox vaccination rates in 2003 and presidential election results in 2004


  • David G. Schultz, Jr, MPH
  • Melinda R. Mihelic
  • F. Matthew Mihelic, MD




smallpox, vaccination, immunization, healthcare worker, Presidential election


A statistical relationship exists between state per capita smallpox vaccination rates of healthcare workers in 2003 and state presidential election results in 2004. The potential implications of political influence on national biosecurity decision making are discussed.

Author Biographies

David G. Schultz, Jr, MPH

Emergency Preparedness Coordinator, Mobile County Health Department, Mobile, Alabama.

Melinda R. Mihelic

Political Science, Howard Baker Center for Public Policy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.

F. Matthew Mihelic, MD

Graduate School of Medicine, Center for Homeland Security Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.


Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Smallpox Vaccination Program Status by State. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/ media/spvaccin.htm. Accessed December 31, 2003.

Democratic Members of the House Select Committee on Homeland Security: A Biodefense Failure: The National Smallpox Vaccination Program One Year Later. Available at http://www.house.gov/hsc/ democrats/pdf/press/040129%5FABiodefenseFailureOneYearLater.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2004.

2004 presidential election national results:Yahoo! News.Available at http://news.yahoo.com/electionresuls. Accessed Nov. 8, 2004.



How to Cite

Schultz, Jr, MPH, D. G., M. R. Mihelic, and F. M. Mihelic, MD. “A Relationship Between US Healthcare Worker Smallpox Vaccination Rates in 2003 and Presidential Election Results in 2004”. American Journal of Disaster Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, July 2007, pp. 189-94, doi:10.5055/ajdm.2007.0028.




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