O2C3: A unified model for emergency operations planning


  • Mark E. Keim, MD




public health preparedness, disasters, emergency operations plan, capability-based planning, information technology, objective-based planning, Homeland Security Presidential Directives


The leadership in each jurisdiction of the world has been described as legally, morally, and politically responsible for ensuring that necessary and appropriate actions are taken to protect people and property from the consequences of emergencies and disasters. As emergencies often evolve rapidly and become too complex for effective improvisation, a government can successfully discharge its emergency management responsibilities only by taking action beforehand. This requires preparedness in advance of the disaster event. Accordingly, preparedness measures should not be improvised or handled on an ad hoc basis.

Author Biography

Mark E. Keim, MD

Office of Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.


Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED): EM-DAT: The International Disaster Database. Brussels, Belgium: Ecole se Sante Publique, Universite Catholique de Louvain. Available at http://www.cred.be/. Accessed November 15, 2008.

ICISS: The responsibility to protect. Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS). Available at http://www.iciss.ca/pdf/Commission-Report.pdf. Accessed November 15, 2008.

Anonymous: Sphere Handbook. The Sphere Project, Humanitarian Standards in Disaster Response, 2004. Available at www.sphereproject.org/. Accessed November 15, 2008.

de Boer J, Dubouloz M (eds.): Handbook of Disaster Medicine. The Netherlands: International Society of Disaster Medicine, 2000.

Keim M, Giannone P: Disaster preparedness. In Ciottone G (ed.): Disaster Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, 2006.

Nelson C, Lurie N, Wasserman J, et al.: Conceptualizing and defining public health emergency preparedness. (Editorial) Am J Pub Health. 97; (S1): S9-S12.

Federal Emergency Management Agency: SLG 101: Guide for All- Hazard Emergency Operations Planning. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Available at http://www.fema.gov/ plan/gaheop.shtm. Accessed November 15, 2008.

Malone T, Crowston K: The interdisciplinary study of coordination. ACM Computing Surveys. 1994; 26: 87-119.

Auf der Heide E: The importance of evidence-based disaster planning. Ann Emerg Med. 2006; 47: 34-49.

Swann J: How can we make better plans? Higher Educ Rev. 1997; 30: 37-55.

Coker RJ, Mournier-Jack S: Pandemic influenza preparedness in the Asia-Pacific region. Lancet. 2006; 368: 886-889.

Christen H, Maniscalco P: The EMS Incident Management System. Upper Saddle River, NY: Prentice-Hall, 1998.

Behn RD: Why measure performance? Different purposes require different measures. Public Admin Rev. 2003; 63: 586-606.

Morrison M: How to write SMART and SMARTER objectives. Available at http://www.rapidbi.com/created/WriteSMARTobjectives. html. Accessed November 15, 2008.

Hogan D, Burstein J: National incident management system. In Hogan D, Burstein J (eds.): Disaster Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott,Williams & Wilkins, 2007: 214-218.

Anonymous: The logical framework approach. Handbook for Objectives-Oriented Planning. Fourth edition. Oslo, Norway:NORAD, 1999. Available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/ documents/un/unpan032501.pdf.

Henry R: Defense transformation and the 2005 quadrennial defense review. Parameters.Winter 2005-2006; XXXV: 5-15.

Murphy C, Gardoni P: The role of society in engineering risk analysis. A capabilities-based approach. Risk Anal. 2006; 26: 1073-1083.

Murphy C, Gardoni P: Determining public policy and resource allocation priorities for mitigating natural hazards: A capabilitiesbased approach. Sci Eng Ethics. 2007; 13: 489-504.

NATO Research and Technology Board: Panel on studies, analysis and simulation (SAS). Handbook in Long Term Defense Planning. Ontario, Canada: St. Joseph Print Group, 2001.Available at http://ftp. rta.nato.int/public//PubFullText/RTO/TR/RTO-TR-069///TR-069- $$TOC.pdf.

Davis PK: Analytic Architecture for Capabilities-Based Planning, Mission-System Analysis, and Transformation. RAND, MR-1513- OSD, 2002. Available at http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_ reports/2005/MR1513.pdf.

The White House: Homeland Security Presidential Directive/ HSPD-8, Annex 1.Washington, DC: The White House. Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/12/20031217-6.html. Accessed November 15, 2008.

Caudle SL: Homeland Security capabilities-based planning: Lessons from the defense community. Available at http://www.hsaj. org/hsa/volI/iss2/art2. Accessed November 15, 2008.

Quarantelli EL: Emergencies, disasters and catastrophes are different phenomena. Newark, DE: Disaster Research Center. Available at http://www.udel.edu/DRC/Preliminary_Papers/pp304. pdf. Accessed November 15, 2008.

Sandelin R: Consensus basics, ingredients of successful consensus process. Northwest Intentional Communities Association Guide to Consensus. Northwest Intentional Communities Association. Available at http://www.ic.org/nica/Process/Consensusbasics.htm# Ingredients. Accessed November 15, 2008.

The White House: Homeland Security Presidential Directive/ HSPD-5.Washington, DC: The White House.Available at http://www. whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html. Accessed November 15, 2008.

Department of Homeland Security: Interim National Planning and Execution System (NPES). Available at http://www.iaem.com/ committees/GovernmentAffairs/documents/rufe091107.pdf. Accessed November 15, 2008.

The White House: Homeland Security Presidential Directive/ HSPD-8.Washington, DC: The White House.Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/12/20031217-6.html. Accessed November 15, 2008.




How to Cite

Keim, MD, M. E. “O2C3: A Unified Model for Emergency Operations Planning”. American Journal of Disaster Medicine, vol. 5, no. 3, May 2010, pp. 169-7, doi:10.5055/ajdm.2010.0021.