Rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks after flooding disasters: Epidemiology, management, and prevention
Keywords:Hantavirus, New World Hantaviruses, American Hantaviruses, Sin nombre virus, Bayou virus, Black Creek Canal virus, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Old World Hantaviruses, Leptospira interrogans, leptospirosis, Weil's disease, infectious disease outbreaks,
Objective: To alert clinicians to the climatic conditions that can precipitate outbreaks of the rodent-borne infectious diseases most often associated with flooding disasters, leptospirosis (LS), and the Hantavirus-caused diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS); to describe the epidemiology and presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of these rodent-borne infectious diseases; and to recommend both prophylactic therapies and effective control and prevention strategies for rodent-borne infectious diseases.
Design: Internet search engines, including Google®, Google Scholar®, Pub Med, Medline, and Ovid, were queried with the key words as search terms to examine the latest scientific articles on rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks in the United States and worldwide to describe the epidemiology and presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of LS and Hantavirus outbreaks.
Setting: Not applicable.
Participants: Not applicable.
Interventions: Not applicable.
Main outcome measure: Rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks following heavy rainfall and flooding disasters.
Results: Heavy rainfall encourages excessive wild grass seed production that supports increased outdoor rodent population densities; and flooding forces rodents from their burrows near water sources into the built environment and closer to humans. Conclusions: Healthcare providers should maintain high levels of suspicion for LS in patients developing febrile illnesses after contaminated freshwater exposures following heavy rainfall, flooding, and even
freshwater recreational events; and for Hantavirus-caused infectious diseases in patients with hemorrhagic fevers that progress rapidly to respiratory or renal failure following rodent exposures.
Gubler DJ, Reiter P, Ebi KL, et al.: Climate variability and change in the United States: Potential impacts on vector-and rodent-borne diseases. Environ Health Perspect. 2001; 109(S2): 223-233.
Cann KF, Thomas DR, Salmon RL, et al.: Extreme water-related weather events and waterborne disease. Epidemiol Infect. 2013; 141: 671-686.
Mendoza MT, Roxas EA, Ginete JK, et al.: Clinical profile of patients diagnosed with leptospirosis after a typhoon: A multicenter study. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2013; 44: 1021-1035.
Socolovschi C, Angelakis E, Renovoise A, et al.: Strikes, flooding, rats, and leptospirosis in Marseille, France. Int J Infect Dis. 2011; 15: 710-715.
Traxler RM, Callinan LS, Holman RC, et al.: Leptospirosisassociated hospitalizations, United States, 1998-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014; 20: 1273-1279.
Xiao H, Tian H-Y, Cazelles B, et al.: Atmospheric moisture variability and transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Changsha City, Mainland China, 1991-2010. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7: e2260.
Xiao H, Tian H-Y, Gao L-D, et al.: Animal reservoir, natural and socioeconomic variations and the transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Chenzhou, China, 2006-2010. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014; 8: e2615.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Brief report: Leptospirosis after flooding of a university campus—Hawaii, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006; 55: 125-127.
Katz AR, Buchholz AE, Hinson K, et al.: Leptospirosis in Hawaii, USA, 199-2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17: 221-226.
Fuortes L, Nettelman M: Leptospirosis: A consequence of the Iowa flood. Iowa Med. 1994; 84: 449-450.
Ichinose H, Estrada H, Roth EE: Observation on Weil's disease with a report of six recent deaths in Louisiana. Bull Tulane Univ Med Fac. 1963; 22: 81-90.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Outbreak of leptospirosis among white-water rafters—Costa Rica, 1996. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997; 46: 577-579.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Outbreak of acute febrile illness among athletes participating in triathlons—Wisconsin and Illinois, 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998; 47: 585-588.
Pavli A, Maltezou HC: Travel-acquired leptospirosis. J Travel Med. 2008; 15: 447-453.
Knust B, Rollin PE: Twenty-year surveillance for human Hantavirus infections, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013; 19: 1934-1937.
Morzunov SP, Feldman H, Spiropoulou CF, et al.: A newly recognized virus associated with a fatal case of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Louisiana. J Virol. 1995; 69: 1980-1983.
Khan AS, Spiropoulou CF, Morzunov SP, et al.: Fatal illness associated with a new Hantavirus in Louisiana. J Med Virol. 1995; 46: 281-286.
Helle B, Goade D, Torrez-Martinez N, et al.: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, renal insufficiency, and myositis associated with infection by Bayou Hantavirus. Clin Infect Dis. 1996; 23: 495-500.
Ksiazek TG, Nichol ST, Mills JN, et al.: Isolation, genetic diversity, and geographic distribution of Bayou virus (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997; 57: 445-448.
Torrez-Martinez N, Bharadwaj M, Goade D, et al.: Bayou virus-associated Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Eastern Texas: Identification of the rice rat, Oryzomys palustris, as reservoir host. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998; 4: 105-111.
Khan AS, Gaviria M, Rollin PE, et al.: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Florida: Association with the newly identified Black Creek Canal virus. Am J Med. 1996; 100: 46-48.
Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Elliott LH, et al.: Isolation of Black Creek Canal virus, a new Hantavirus from Sigmodon hispidus in Florida. J Med Virol. 1995; 46: 35-39.
Rackov EV, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, et al.: Genetic and serologic analysis of Black Creek Canal virus and its association with human disease and Sigmodon hispidus infection. Virology. 1995; 210: 482-489.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Outbreak of acute illness—Southwestern United States, 1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1993; 42: 421-424.
Engelthaler DM, Mosley DG, Cheek JE, et al.: Climatic and environmental patterns associated with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999; 5: 87-94.
Bayard V, Kitsutani PT, Barria EO, et al.: Outbreak of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Los Santos, Panama, 1999-2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004; 9: 1635-1642.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in visitors to a National Park—Yosemite Valley, California, 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012; 61: 952.
Mills JN, Corneli A, Young JC, et al.: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome—United States: Updated recommendations for risk reduction. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002; 51(RR-9): 1-12.
How to Cite
Copyright 2007-2023, Weston Medical Publishing, LLC
All Rights Reserved