Haddon matrix analysis of medical preparedness for mass gathering music festivals
Keywords:Haddon matrix, mass gathering event medicine, public health preparedness
AbstractBeginning in the 1960s as a tool to disaggregate complicated auto injuries, the Haddon matrix has evolved into a modern method of analyzing complex public health challenges. Throughout the United States and internationally, music festivals have become a rapidly growing and increasingly complex area of mass gathering medicine. Given the austere environment and inherent challenges of providing medical care during a music festival, we utilized a modified Haddon matrix. The objective is to assess the relevant human, physical, and sociocultural factors that impact these festivals throughout the pre-event, event, and post-event time periods. This will ensure an all-hazards preparedness approach to the historically high incidence of traumatic injuries and polysubstance abuse, coupled with modern challenges such as infectious diseases and acts of intentional violence.
Haddon W: The changing approach to the epidemiology, prevention, and amelioration of trauma: The transition to approaches etiologically rather than descriptively based. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1968; 58(8): 1431-1438. DOI: 10.2105/ajph.58.8.1431.
Barnett DJ, Balicer RD, Lucey DR, et al.: A systematic analytic approach to pandemic influenza preparedness planning. PLoS Med. 2005; 2(12): e359.
Cole G, Rosenblum AJ, Boston M, et al.: Applying the Haddon matrix to hospital earthquake preparedness and response. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2020: 1-8. DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2020.30.
Runyan CW: Using the Haddon matrix: Introducing the third dimension. Inj Prev. 1998; 4(4): 302-307. DOI: 10.1136/ip.4.4.302.
Baker SP, Li G: Epidemiologic approaches to injury and violence. Epidemiol Rev. 2012; 34(1): 1-3.
Baru A, Azazh A, Beza L: Injury severity levels and associated factors among road traffic collision victims referred to emergency departments of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: The study based on the Haddon matrix. BMC Emerg Med. 2019; 19(1): 2.
Zou X, Vu HL, Huang H: Fifty years of accident analysis & prevention: A bibliometric and scientometric overview. Accid Anal Prev. 2020; 144: 105568. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2020.105568.
Brown J, Schonstein L, Ivers R, et al.: Children and motorcycles: A systematic review of risk factors and interventions. Inj Prev. 2018; 24(2): 166-175.
Johnson M, Bonham J, Haworth N: Cycle aware package: Using Haddon’s matrix to reduce novice driver crashes with cyclists. Traffic Inj Prev. 2018; 19(Suppl. 2): S158-S159.
Mahoney P, Gielen AC, Bailey MM, et al.: Applying the Haddon matrix to evaluate sexual assault interventions on college campuses. J Am Coll Health. 2020; 68(6): 579-586. DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2019.1583658.
Varney S, Hirshon JM, Dischinger P, et al.: Extending injury prevention methodology to chemical terrorism preparedness: The Haddon matrix and sarin. Am J Disaster Med. 2006; 1(1): 18-27.
Barnett DJ, Balicer RD, Blodgett D, et al.: The application of the Haddon matrix to public health readiness and response planning. Environ Health Perspect. 2005; 113(5): 561-566.
Shiau Y, Lo F, Ko P: Early intervention mechanism for preventing electrocution in construction engineering. Ind Health. 2021; 59: 4-17. DOI: 10.2486/indhealth.2020-0097.
Engström KG, Angrén J, Björnstig U, et al.: Mass casualty incidents in the underground mining industry: Applying the Haddon matrix on an integrative literature review. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2018; 12(1): 138-146.
Vriend I, Gouttebarge V, Finch CF, et al.: Intervention strategies used in sport injury prevention studies: A systematic review identifying studies applying the Haddon matrix. Sports Med. 2017; 47(10): 2027-2043. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-017-0718-y.
Tantisattamo E, Ferrey AJ, Reddy UG, et al.: Haddon matrix for kidney transplantation during COVID-19 pandemic: A problem solving framework for present and future. Transpl Infect Dis. 2020: e13373. DOI: 10.1111/tid.13373.
Tiwari A, Tarrant M, Yuen KH, et al.: Preparedness for influenza pandemic in Hong Kong nursing units. J Nursing Scholarship. 2006; 38(4): 308-313. DOI: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2006.00120.x.
Owen-Jones JM: Now biggest festival in the world thanks to record attendance. 2019. Available at https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2019/07/277167/mawazine-now-biggest-festival/. Accessed July 7, 2020.
Guttridge-Hewitt M: GEM is Georgia’s wonderful and insane 32-day marathon festival. 2017. Available at https://mixmag.net/feature/gem-is-the-32-day-festival-carrying-on-the-kazantip-spirit. Accessed July 7, 2020.
Carmichael T: Electronic dance music (EDM) fan behavior differs greatly from that of other music fans. Yahoo! Finance Web site. 2013. Available at http://finance.yahoo.com/news/electronic-dancemusic-edm-fan192420959.html. Accessed March 15, 2020.
Turris SA, Jones T, Lund A: Mortality at music festivals: An update for 2016-2017-academic and grey literature for case finding. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018; 33(5): 553-557.
Turris SA, Lund A: Mortality at music festivals: Academic and grey literature for case finding. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(1): 58-63.
Black E, Govindasamy L, Auld R, et al.: Toxicological analysis of serious drug-related harm among electronic dance music festival attendees in New South Wales, Australia: A consecutive case series. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020; 213: 108070.
De Brennan S: Dancing away from reform: The inquest into the death of six patrons of NSW music festivals. J Law Med. 2020; 27(3): 693-706.
Nadesan K, Kumari C, Afiq M: Dancing to death: A case of heat stroke. J Forensic Leg Med. 2017; 50: 1-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2017.05.008.
Ridpath A, Driver CR, Nolan ML, et al.: Illnesses and deaths among persons attending an electronic dance-music festival – New York city, 2013. M MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014; 63(50): 1195.
Hutton A, Savage C, Ranse J, et al.: The use of Haddon’s matrix to plan for injury and illness prevention at outdoor music festivals. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015; 30(2): 175-183. DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X15000187.
FitzGibbon KM, Nable JV, Ayd B, et al.: Mass-gathering medical care in electronic dance music festivals. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(5): 563-567. DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X1700663X.
National Association of State EMS Officials. National EMS Scope of Practice Model 2019 (Report No. DOT HS 812-666). National Association of State EMS Officials, 2019.
Lund A, Gutman SJ, Turris SA: Mass gathering medicine: A practical means of enhancing disaster preparedness in Canada. CJEM. 2011; 13(4): 231-236.
Sheng AY, Clark A, Amanti C: Supervision of resident physicians. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2020; 38(2): 339-351. DOI: 10.1016/j.emc.2020.02.004.
Barnett DJ, Strauss-Riggs K, Klimczak VL, et al.: An analysis of after action reports from Texas hurricanes in 2005 and 2017. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2021; 27(2): E71-E78. DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000001120.
Vahedian-Azimi A, Hajiesmaeili M, Kangasniemi M, et al.: Effects of stress on critical care nurses: A national cross-sectional study. J Intensive Care Med. 2019; 34(4): 311-322. DOI: 10.1177/0885066617696853.
Luftman K, Aydelotte J, Rix K, et al.: PTSD in those who care for the injured. Injury. 2017; 48(2): 293-296. DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2016.11.001.
Fullerton CS, Ursano RJ, Wang L: Acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in disaster or rescue workers. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161(8): 1370-1376. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.8.1370.
Brymer M, Jacobs A, Layne C, et al.: Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide. 2nd ed. Los Angeles, CA: National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for PTSD, 2006: 5-6.
Chhabra N, Gimbar RP, Walla LM, et al.: Emergency department patient burden from an electronic dance music festival. J Emerg Med. 2018; 54(4): 435-439. DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.10.007.
Kim S, Friedman MS, Fitzpatrick C: Rattlesnakes, stabbings, hyperthermia and a visualized appendicitis? Music fest medical care recap. Linkedin.com web site. 2019. Available at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/rattlesnakes-stabbings-hyperthermia-visualizedmusic-fest-connor/. Accessed January 10, 2020.
Chacko S, Randolph R, Morsch G: Disaster medicine: Public health preparedness for natural disasters. FP Essent. 2019; 487: 17-22.
Memish ZA, Steffen R, White P, et al.: Mass gatherings medicine: Public health issues arising from mass gathering religious and sporting events. Lancet. 2019; 393(10185): 2073-2084. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(19)30501-x.
DeMott JM, Hebert CL, Novak M, et al.: Characteristics and resource utilization of patients presenting to the ED from mass gathering events. Am J Emerg Med. 2018; 36(6): 983-987.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC): Nationwide dissemination of multiply resistant Shigella Sonnei following a common-source outbreak. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1987; 36(38): 633-634.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Surveillance for early detection of disease outbreaks at an outdoor mass gathering–Virginia, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006; 55(3): 71-74.
Polkinghorne BG, Massey PD, Durrheim DN, et al.: Prevention and surveillance of public health risks during extended mass gatherings in rural areas: The experience of the Tamworth Country Music Festival, Australia. Public Health. 2013; 127(1): 32-38. DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2012.09.014.
Karami M, Doosti-Irani A, Ardalan A, et al.: Public health threats in mass gatherings: A systematic review. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2019; 13(5-6): 1035-1046. DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.161.
Elliot AJ, Hughes HE, Hughes TC, et al.: Establishing an emergency department syndromic surveillance system to support the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Emerg Med J. 2012; 29(12): 954-960. DOI: 10.1136/emermed-2011-200684.
Lund A, Turris S: The event chain of survival in the context of music festivals: A framework for improving outcomes at major planned events. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(4): 437-443.
Shapira S, Friger M, Bar-Dayan Y, et al.: Healthcare workers’ willingness to respond following a disaster: A novel statistical approach toward data analysis. BMC Med Educ. 2019; 19(1): 130-112. DOI: 10.1186/s12909-019-1561-7.
Friedman MS, Plocki A, Likourezos A, et al.: A prospective analysis of patients presenting for medical attention at a large electronic dance music festival. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(1): 78-82.
Lim M, Hellard ME, Hocking JS, et al.: A cross-sectional survey of young people attending a music festival: Associations between drug use and musical preference. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2008; 27(4): 439-441. DOI: 10.1080/09595230802089719.
Westrol MS, Koneru S, McIntyre N, et al.: Music genre as a predictor of resource utilization at outdoor music concerts. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(3): 289-296.
Palamar JJ, Acosta P, Sherman S, et al.: Self-reported use of novel psychoactive substances among attendees of electronic dance music venues. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2016; 42(6): 624-632.
Krul J, Blankers M, Girbes AR: Substance-related health problems during rave parties in The Netherlands (1997–2008). PLoS One. 2011; 6(12): e29620.
Milsten AM, Tennyson J, Weisberg S: Retrospective analysis of mosh-pit-related injuries. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(6): 636-641. DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X17006689.
Hodge JG, Anderson ED, Kirsch T, et al.: Facilitating hospital emergency preparedness: Introduction of a model memorandum of understanding. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011; 5(1): 54-61. DOI: 10.1001/10-v4n2-hsf10003.
Hawk M, Coulter RWS, Egan JE, et al.: Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings. Harm Reduct J. 2017; 14(1): 70-79. DOI: 10.1186/s12954-017-0196-4.
Munn MB, Lund A, Golby R, et al.: Observed benefits to on-site medical services during an annual 5-day electronic dance music event with harm reduction services. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(2): 228-234.
How to Cite
Copyright 2007-2023, Weston Medical Publishing, LLC
All Rights Reserved