Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNEs) preparedness for sporting event mass gatherings: A systematic review of the literature
Keywords:CBRNE, sporting events, terrorism, Olympics, World Cup, disaster medicine
Objective: Sporting events often constitute mass gatherings (MGs) featuring large crowds of spectators and participants. Our objective is to understand the current state of emergency preparedness for sporting events by examining past MG sporting events to evaluate mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) events.
Methods: In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic literature review was carried out among 10 literature databases. The quality and risk of bias in each reviewed publication was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool.
Results: A total of 5,597 publications were identified. Of these, 81 papers were selected for full text reads and 25 publications were accepted. The included articles documented sporting events worldwide, ranging from incidents occurring from 1972 to 2020. Cross-cutting themes found in best practices and recommendations were strategic communication, surveillance, planning and preparedness, and training and response.
Conclusion: More evidence-based guidelines are needed to ensure best practices in response and recovery for CBRNE incidents at sporting events. Public health risks as well as implementation barriers and opportunities to prepare for potential CBRNE threats at sporting event MGs require further investigation.
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