The pulmonary consequences of sandstorms in Saudi Arabia: A comprehensive review and update


  • Osama A. Samarkandi, PhD, RN
  • Anas A. Khan, MBBS, MHA, SBEM
  • Waleed Alazmy, MSc
  • Abdullah M. Alobaid, MSc
  • Adel S. Bashatah, PhD, RN



natural disaster, asthma, weather, prevention, Mitigation


Sandstorms represent a major natural hazard in the Arabian Peninsula. Their pulmonary consequences can be life-threatening, especially to those with a history of allergies, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Novel presentations of respiratory diseases caused by sandstorms can now be traced to specific chemical and organic components of sandstorms. We present an update of the pathophysiology of pulmonary conditions based on the results of clinical and epidemiologic research as well as from greater knowledge of the complex chemical composition of sandstorms. This has led to more precise therapeutic approaches to severe respiratory illnesses and a greater understanding of risk factors for morbidity and mortality due to Arabian sandstorms.

Author Biographies

Osama A. Samarkandi, PhD, RN

Chairman, Basic Science Department, Director, eLearning and IT Unit, Prince Sultan College for Emergency Medical Services, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Anas A. Khan, MBBS, MHA, SBEM

Chairman, Department of Emergency Medicine, King Saud University, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Waleed Alazmy, MSc

Instructor, Department of EMS, Prince Sultan College for Emergency Medical Services, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Abdullah M. Alobaid, MSc

Lecturer, Department of EMS, Prince Sultan College for Emergency Medical Services, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Adel S. Bashatah, PhD, RN

Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia


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How to Cite

Samarkandi, PhD, RN, O. A., A. A. Khan, MBBS, MHA, SBEM, W. Alazmy, MSc, A. M. Alobaid, MSc, and A. S. Bashatah, PhD, RN. “The Pulmonary Consequences of Sandstorms in Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive Review and Update”. American Journal of Disaster Medicine, vol. 12, no. 3, July 2017, pp. 179-88, doi:10.5055/ajdm.2017.0272.



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