Community integration/reintegration: A recreational therapy intervention


  • Tim Passmore, EdD, CTRS/L



community reintegration, community integration, recreational therapy


This manuscript addresses the issues surrounding the definitions of community integration and community reintegration. The interventions of community integration and reintegration are outlined and suggested strategies for successful application of both interventions are provided.

Author Biography

Tim Passmore, EdD, CTRS/L

Associate Professor, Program Coordinator, Recreation Management & Therapeutic Recreation, School of Applied Health & Educational Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma.


McColl M, Carlson P, Johnston J, et al.: The definition of community integration: Perspectives of people with brain injuries. Brain Injury. 1998; 12(1): 15-30.

Gordon W, Zafonte R, Cicerone K, et al. Traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: State of science. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006; 85: 343-382.

McCabe P, Lippert C, Wiser M, et al.: Community reintegration following acquired brain injury. Brain Injury. 2007; 21(2): 231-257.

American Medical Association. CPT Professional 2012 (Spiral Bound) (Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) Professional. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 2011.

Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services & Department of Health & Human Services. Baltimore Maryland. (DHHS) Guidance/Guidance/Transmittals/downloads/AB02078.pdf

Jacobs H. Keynote address: Community integration and brain injury. New Beginnings Conference, Ottawa, On, 1993.

Yasui N, Berven N. Community integration: conceptualization and measurement. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2009; 31(9):761-771.

Gordon W, Brown M, Bergman A, et al.: Community integration research: An empowerment paradigm. In Hagglund k, Heinemann A (eds.): Handbook of Applied Disability and Rehabilitation Research. New York: Springer, 2006.

Salzer M, Baron R: Community Integration and Measuring Participation. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Collaborative on Community Integration.

McCabe P, Lippert C, Weiser M, et al.: Community reintegration following acquired brain injury. Brain Injury. 2007; 21(2): 231-257.

Forchheimer M, Tate D: Enhancing community re-integration following spinal cord injury. NeuroRehaiblitation. 2004; 19: 103-113.

Corrigan J, Demming R: Psychometric characteristics of the community integration questionnaire: Replication & extension. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1995; 10: 41-53.

Resnik L, Bradford D, Glynn M, et al.: Issues in defining and measuring veteran community reintegration: Proceedings of the working group on community reintegration, VA rehabilitation outcomes conference, Miami, Florida. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012; 49(1): 87-100.

Boschen K, Tonack M, Judith G: Long-term adjustment and community reintegration following spinal cord injury. Int J Rehabil Res. 2003; 26(3): 157-164.

Bhogal S, Teasell R, Foley N, et al.: Community reintegration after stroke. Stroke Rehabil Evidence-Based Rev Part II. 2003; 10(2): 107-129.

Rossman S: Services Integration: Strengthening Offenders and Families, While Promoting Community Health and Safety. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, 2001.

Beck A, Maruschak L: Mental health treatment in state prisons, 2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, NCJ 188215. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, July, 2001.

Denckla D, Berman G: Rethinking the Revolving Door: A Look at Mental Illness in the Courts. New York: Center for Court Innovation, 2001.

Government Accounting Office (GOA): Prisoner Releases: Trends and Information on Reintegration Programs, GOA-01-483. Washington, DC: Government Accounting Office (GOA), June 2001.

Green L, Shawna M: Can public health researchers and agencies reconcile the push from funding bodies and the pull from communities? Am J Publ Health. 2001; 9(12): 1929-1938.

Passmore T: Coverage of Recreational Therapy: Rules and Regulations, 2nd ed. Hattiesburg, MS: American Therapeutic Recreation Association, 2010.

Bond G, Salyers M, Rollins A, et al.: How evidence-based practices contribute to community integration. Community Mental Health J. 2010; 40(6): 569-588.






Most read articles by the same author(s)