Cardio-kickboxing and dynamic balance in adults with developmental disabilities


  • Tyler Tapps, PhD, CPRP
  • Alysha A. Walter, MS, CTRS
  • Mary Tapps, MS, CTRS



developmental disability, recreational therapy, cardio-kickboxing, balance


This study examined the relationship between cardio-kickboxing and balance in individuals with developmental disabilities (DDs). Cardio-kickboxing is a combination of aerobics, boxing, and martial arts. In general, cardio-kickboxing has shown to improve balance in participants. To our knowledge, this is the first adult cardio-kickboxing program for participants with a DD. Twenty-one adults with development disabilities were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group. Participants were tested at baseline, week four, and postintervention using the Four Square Step Test. Improvements were shown in balance (p < 0.0125) at postintervention testing. Results indicate that cardio-kickboxing may be a promising intervention to improve balance for individuals with DDs.

Author Biographies

Tyler Tapps, PhD, CPRP

School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri

Alysha A. Walter, MS, CTRS

Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, College of Health, Education and Human Development, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina

Mary Tapps, MS, CTRS

Recreational Therapist, Oak Pointe of Maryville, Maryville, Missouri


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How to Cite

Tapps, PhD, CPRP, T., Walter, MS, CTRS, A. A., & Tapps, MS, CTRS, M. (2017). Cardio-kickboxing and dynamic balance in adults with developmental disabilities. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 16(1), 33–38.




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