The effects of sternal intraosseous and intravenous administration of amiodarone in a hypovolemic swine cardiac arrest model
Keywords:amiodarone, intraosseous, return of spontaneous circulation, pharmacokinetics, resuscitation, hemorrhage
Objective: This study compared the effects of amiodarone via sternal intraosseous (SIO) and intravenous (IV) routes on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, concentration maximum (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and mean concentrations over time in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model.
Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.
Setting: TriService Research Facility.
Subjects: Yorkshire-cross swine (n = 28).
Intervention: Swine were anesthetized and placed into cardiac arrest. After 2 minutes, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated. After an additional 2 minutes, amiodarone 300 mg was administered via the tibial intraosseous TIO or the IV route. Blood samples were collected over 5 minutes. The plasma concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Main Outcome Measurements: ROSC, time to ROSC, Cmax, Tmax, and mean concentrations over time.
Results: A multivariate analyses of variance indicated that there were no significant differences in the SIO and IV groups in ROSC (p = 0.191), time to ROSC (p > 0.05), Tmax mean 88.1 ± 24.8 seconds versus 49.5 ± 21.8 seconds (p = 0.317), or Cmax mean 92,700 ± 161,112 ng/mL versus 64,159.8 ± 14,174.8 ng/mL (p = 0.260). A repeated analyses of variance indicated that there were no significant differences between the groups relative to concentrations over time (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: The SIO provides rapid and reliable access to administer life-saving medications during cardiac arrest.
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