Leisure time activities, free time boredom, and aggressive behavioral tendencies among at-risk youth in a poverty area: Implications for recreational therapy


  • Heewon Yang, PhD, CTRS
  • Kevin N. Schraer, MS
  • Marjorie Malkin, EdD, CTRS
  • Hansook Yi, PhD




leisure time activities, free time boredom, aggressive behavioral tendencies, at-risk youth


The primary purpose of this study was to examine sociobehavioral characteristics [ie, leisure time activities, free time boredom (FTB), and aggressive behavioral tendencies] of at-risk youth in an area of general poverty. The participants of this study were attendees of an after-school program provided by a local social service agency, and the majority of the participants was African American (n = 75, 87.2 percent). This study examined their leisure participation patterns as well as barriers to leisure participation and desired facilities in the area. This study also revealed the participants’ perceived FTB level and aggressive behavioral tendencies. This article, lastly, suggests guidelines for therapeutic recreation practitioners who work with youth at-risk in poverty areas.

Author Biographies

Heewon Yang, PhD, CTRS

Associate Professor, Department of Health Education and Recreation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.

Kevin N. Schraer, MS

Department of Health Education and Recreation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.

Marjorie Malkin, EdD, CTRS

Professor; Graduate Coordinator for Recreation, Department of Health Education and Recreation Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.

Hansook Yi, PhD

Visiting Scholar, Department of Health Education and Recreation Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.


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How to Cite

Yang, PhD, CTRS, H., Schraer, MS, K. N., Malkin, EdD, CTRS, M., & Yi, PhD, H. (2010). Leisure time activities, free time boredom, and aggressive behavioral tendencies among at-risk youth in a poverty area: Implications for recreational therapy. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 9(1), 35–47. https://doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2010.0004




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