Self-efficacy and arthritis impact on health: The effect of an Arthritis Foundation Aquatic Program


  • Lei Guo, PhD, CTRS/LRT
  • Heewon Yang, PhD, CTRS
  • Majorie M. Malkin, EdD, CTRS



arthritis, arthritis self-efficacy, arthritis impact


Arthritis is the leading cause of disability among older adults in the United States. Studies have found that aquatic exercise improves the functional conditions of individuals with arthritis. In addition, self-efficacy has been proposed to be an important variable associated with successful coping with arthritis. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of an Arthritis Foundation Aquatic Program on arthritis self-efficacy and impact through a three-month aquatic exercise program. Participants (n = 6) completed the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2-Short Form (AIMS2-SF) and the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale (ASES) at the beginning and also at the end of the program. Significant improvements were found in ASES and the A(a)ffect domain in AIMS2-SF, indicating that the aquatic program increase(d) the participants’ self-efficacy and reduced the negative impact of arthritis.

Author Biographies

Lei Guo, PhD, CTRS/LRT

Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Recreation, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina.

Heewon Yang, PhD, CTRS

Associate Professor, Department of Health Education and Recreation, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois.

Majorie M. Malkin, EdD, CTRS

Professor, Department of Health Education and Recreation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.


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How to Cite

Guo, PhD, CTRS/LRT, L., Yang, PhD, CTRS, H., & Malkin, EdD, CTRS, M. M. (2009). Self-efficacy and arthritis impact on health: The effect of an Arthritis Foundation Aquatic Program. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 8(4), 9–19.




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