Culturally competent recreation therapy: Individualism and collectivism


  • Junhyoung Kim, MS
  • Michelle King, MS, CTRS
  • Junsurk Park, MS



cultural competence, cultural difference, individualistic, collectivistic, self, happiness


To provide effective recreational therapy for clients who have collectivistic cultural values and beliefs, recreational therapists need to recognize cultural differences and understand how each cultural background affects a client’s health beliefs and behaviors. The goal of this article is to examine different cultural perspectives to improve cultural competence of recreational therapists to provide more effective recreation programs for clients who have collectivistic cultural values and beliefs. This article represents three basic different frameworks: the meaning of self; cultural meanings of happiness; and the relationship between therapists and clients.

Author Biographies

Junhyoung Kim, MS

Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Michelle King, MS, CTRS

King Adult Enrichment Program, Denver, Colorado.

Junsurk Park, MS

Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas.


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How to Cite

Kim, MS, J., King, MS, CTRS, M., & Park, MS, J. (2009). Culturally competent recreation therapy: Individualism and collectivism. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 8(2), 17–21.