The outcomes of mindfulness-based interventions for adults who have experienced a traumatic brain injury: A systematic review of the literature


  • Sophia Kenuk, MS, CTRS
  • Heather R. Porter, PhD, CTRS



traumatic brain injury, mindfulness-based interventions


This literature review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for adults following a traumatic brain injury. A comprehensive literature search yielded 56 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria. Five different MBIs were identified, including mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, mindfulness training, yoga, tai chi, and qigong. A total of 88 outcomes in the areas of cognition, home and community activities, physical functioning, psychosocial functioning, and recovery and general health were measured across the studies, of which 66 of the 88 outcomes found significant, positive, or significant and positive mixed results (75 percent) across all of the studies. Although more research is needed, these findings indicate that MBIs hold promise in improving functioning. Recommendations for recreational therapy practice and future research are provided.

Author Biographies

Sophia Kenuk, MS, CTRS

Recreational Therapist, Confluence Health, Wenatchee Valley Hospital and Central Washington Hospital, Wenatchee, Washington

Heather R. Porter, PhD, CTRS

Associated Professor, Recreation Therapy Program, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


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How to Cite

Kenuk, MS, CTRS, S., & Porter, PhD, CTRS, H. R. (2017). The outcomes of mindfulness-based interventions for adults who have experienced a traumatic brain injury: A systematic review of the literature. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 16(2), 9–19.