General Pharmacology of Long-Acting, Extended-Release, and Sustained-Release Opioids for the Treatment of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain


  • Mellar P. Davis, MD, FCCP
  • Pamela Gamier, RN, BSN, CHPN
  • Paul A. Sloan, MD



long-acting opioids, pain management, opioids, extended-release opioids


Both short-acting (SA) opioids and long-acting (LA) opioids have been used for chronic pain (defined as pain lasting >3 months). SA opioids have a duration of action ranging between 2 and 4 hours, result in rapidly fluctuating drug levels and are suitable for acute, unstable, intermittent, breakthrough, and procedure-related pain.

Author Biographies

Mellar P. Davis, MD, FCCP

Department of Solid Tumor Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio

Pamela Gamier, RN, BSN, CHPN

Department of Solid Tumor Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio

Paul A. Sloan, MD

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky


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How to Cite

Davis, MD, FCCP, M. P., P. Gamier, RN, BSN, CHPN, and P. A. Sloan, MD. “General Pharmacology of Long-Acting, Extended-Release, and Sustained-Release Opioids for the Treatment of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain”. Journal of Opioid Management, vol. 10, no. 7, May 2023, doi:10.5055/jom.2014.0229.

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