Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Emergency evacuation orders: Considerations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy

Patrick D. O’Neil, PhD, Capt. USN (ret)

Abstract


This article analyzes the problems surrounding the execution of emergency evacuation orders by evaluating Hurricane Sandy and the emergency actions taken by the State of New Jersey and the City of Atlantic City New Jersey. The analysis provides an overview of the legal authority granting emergency powers to governors and mayors to issue evacuation proclamations in addition to an evaluation of the New Jersey’s emergency evacuation mandate and subsequent compliance. The article concludes with provision of planning and preparedness recommendations for public managers facing similar hazards, including a recommendation for provision of emergency shelter contingencies within the threat zone in anticipation of citizen noncompliance evacuation orders.


Keywords


decision making, policy, evacuation, preparedness

Full Text:

PDF

References


New Jersey State Police Office of Emergency Management: Basic Workshop in Emergency Management: Unit 2: History of Emergency Management (rev 10/01), 2001.

Zimmerman JF: State-Local Relations: A Partnership Approach. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.

Clinton v Cedar Rapids and the Missouri River Railroad, 24 Iowa 455 (1868).

League of Women Voters of the Fairfax Area 2004: Dillon’s rule: Good or bad for local governments? Available at http://www.lwvfairfax.org/files. Accessed October 28, 2013.

Egler PJ: What gives cities and counties the authority to create charters, ordinances, and codes. Perspect: Teaching Legal Res Writ. 2001; 9(Spring): 145-147.

Bea K, Runyan LC, Warnock KA: Emergency management and homeland security statutory authorities in the states, District of Columbia, and insular areas: A summary. Congressional Research Service RL 32287, 2004.

National Emergency Management Association (NEMA): State emergency management organizations, 2013. Available at http://www.nemaweb.org. Accessed July 29, 2013.

The New Jersey Civilian Defense and Disaster Control Act. 1942. N.J.S.A. App. A: 9-30.

Federal Emergency Management Agency: Hurricane Sandy: Timeline. 2012. Available at http://www.fema.gov/hurricane-sandytimeline. Accessed June 14, 2013.

Weis J, Fleisher L: Christie declares state of emergency for New Jersey. Metropolis. The Wall Street Journal. October 27, 2012, 2:53PM. Available at http://blogs.wsj.com/metropolis/2012/10/27/christie-declares-state-of-emergency-for-new-jersey-as-stormapproaches/. Accessed March 4, 2013.

Savali KW: NJ Gov. Christie slams Atlantic City Mayor, praises President Obama for leadership during Superstorm Sandy [Video]. 2012. Available at http://newsone.com/2069682/christie-obamasuperstorm-sandy/. Accessed October 28, 2013.

Hutchins R: Atlantic City mayor fires back at Christie, defends use of city shelters. The Star Ledger. 2012. Available at http://www.nj.com/politics/index.ssf/2012/10/atlantic_city_mayor_fires_back.htmlc. Accessed February 24, 2013.

Federal Emergency Management Agency: Session 12: Course Title: Disaster Response Operations and Management: Evacuation. nd. Available at http://www.fema.gov/. Accessed October 28, 2013.

Siddiqui NJ, Purtle JP, Andrulis DP: Ethnicity and minority status effects on preparedness. In Penuel KB, Statler M (eds.): Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication, 2011.

Spence PR, Lachlin KA, Griffin DR: Crisis Communication, Race, and Natural Disasters. J Black Stud. 2007; 37: 539.

Houston N: “Mandatory” Evacuations – Are They Really Enforceable? Coates Cannons: NC Local Government Blog; 2012. Available at http://canons.sog.unc.edu/?p=5301. Accessed March 4, 2013.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.2014.0174

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Emergency Management