Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Responding to catastrophic disasters: Lessons from the World Trade Center terrorist attacks

David A. McEntire, PhD, Jill Souza, MPA

Abstract


The following article uses the 2001 World Trade Center Terrorist attacks as a case study to illustrate the major challenges presented to responders and emergency management officials. It examines not only the consequences of this disaster but also the immediate and long-term measures to deal with it. The article concludes with suggestions on how to prepare for such events in the future.

Keywords


World Trade Center attack; terrorism; response; emergency management; preparedness lessons

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bernstein R: Out of the Blue. New York: Times Books, 2002.

McEntire D, Robinson RJ, Weber R: Business responses to the World Trade Center disaster: A study of corporate roles, functions, and interaction with the public sector. In Monday JL (ed.): Beyond September 11th: An Account of Post-Disaster Research. Boulder: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, 2003: 431-457.

McKinsey and Company: Increasing FDNY’s Preparedness (Technical Paper). New York: New York City Fire Department, 2002.

Jackson BA, Peterson DJ, Bartis JT, et al.: Protecting Emergency Responders: Lessons Learned From Terrorist Attacks (Conference Proceedings). RAND, Science and Technology Policy Institute, 2001.

Langewiesche W: American Ground: Unbuilding The World Trade Center. New York: North Point Press, 2002.

Rubin CB, Renda-Tanali I: The Terrorist Attacks on September 11th, 2001: Immediate Impacts and Their Ramifications for Federal Emergency Management (Quick Response Report #140). Boulder: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado, 2003.

Kendra JM, Wachtendorf T: Elements of resilience after the World Trade Center disaster: Reconstituting New York City’s Emergency Operations Centre. Disasters. 2003; 27(4): 37-53.

O’Brian PW: Institutional Warning Response Following the September 11th World Trade Center Attack (Quick Response Report #150). Boulder: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado, 2002.

Kendra J,Wachtendorf T: Creativity in emergency response to the World Trade Center. In Monday JL (ed.): Beyond September 11th: An Account of Post-Disaster Research. Boulder: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, 2003: 121-146.

Lowe S: Community Response in a Terrorist Disaster (Quick Response Report #144). Boulder: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado, 2002.

Sutton J: The Response of Faith-Based Organizations in New York City Following the World Trade Center Attacks on September 11, 2001 (Quick Response Report #147). Boulder: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado, 2002.

Urban Search and Rescue 9/11 Fact Sheet. Available at www.fema.gov/about/media9-11.shtm. Accessed September 8, 2003.

Vernberg EM: Psychological science and terrorism: Making psychological issues part of our planning and technology (No. 106). Presented at Sixth Annual Research Policy Retreat, Merrill Center in Valley Falls, Kansas: Merrill Advanced Studies Center, 2002.

Galea S, Ahern J, Resnick H, et al.: Psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346(13): 982-987.

Sattler DN: The September 11th Attacks on America: Relationship Among Psychological Distress, Posttraumatic Growth, and Social Support in New York (Quick Response Report #158). Boulder: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado, 2002.

Murphy DE: Survivors are found in the rubble. New York Times. September 12, 2002: A2.

Barry D: Rescuers find few to save as the mountains of rubble yield mostly death and despair. New York Times. September 13, 2001: A8.

Fink M, Mathias L: Never Forget: An Oral History of September 11, 2001. New York: HarperCollins books, 2002.

Federal Emergency Management Agency: FEMA pledges to stay for as long as it takes. Press Release No. 01-223. October 11, 2001.

Henriques DB, Barstow D: Change in the rules barred many from September 11th disaster relief. Available at www.nytimes. com/2002/04/26/nyregion/26FEMA.html. Accessed April 26, 2002.

Henriques DB: U.S. to reconsider applicants rejected for aid after attack. Available at www.nytimes.com/2002/04/26/nyregion/ 26FEMA.html. Accessed May 2, 2002.

Shah A: The silent losers of Wall Street. Dallas Morning News. September 3, 2002: 1A.

Stehr S, Simpson D: Victim Identification and Management Following the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers (Quick Response Report #148). Boulder: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado, 2002.

Hampson R, Moore MT: Two years after September 11th, NYC couple to bury son. USA Today. September 4, 2003: A1, A2.

Moore MT: Quite since 9/11, subway to WTC resumes Sunday. USA Today. November 20, 2003: 5A.

Jones C, Moore MT: Eight WTC memorial designs make final cut. USA Today. November 20, 2003: 5A.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.2009.0011

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Emergency Management