Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Post-hurricane forest management responses in the southern United States

Pete Bettinger, PhD, Krista L. Merry, MS, Jeffrey Hepinstall, PhD

Abstract


Although people living along the southeastern and Gulf coasts of the United States may have limited experience dealing with major hurricane damage, hurricanes are imminent and pose potentially dire consequences to forest resources. In addition to understanding the physical and biological reactions of forests to extreme weather conditions, there are a number of managerial responses that should be considered based on this past experience. This article presents a summary of the more pertinent forest management responses, and where appropriate, highlights situations where these were beneficial to the overall (economic, ecological, social) recovery effort. Management responses address not only the immediate needs for clearing roads and restoring basic service needs, but also the longer-term issues related to timber salvage, reforestation, forest health, and fire danger. The damage from strong winds and storm surges may also result in serious consequences for ecological values. However, challenges and issues related to the restoration of forests and forest-related values may require several years to address. Therefore, the objective of this review article is to provide a summary of the experiences of forest land managers, researchers, and emergency planners who have directly responded to severe storms affecting the southern United States.

Keywords


wind damage; storm surge; windthrow; debris removal; timber supplies; wildlife and recreation impacts

Full Text:

PDF

References


Pielke RA Jr, Gratz J, Landsea CW, et al.: Normalized hurricane damage in the United States: 1900-2005. Nat Hazards Rev. 2008; 9: 29-42.

Blake ES, Rappaport EN, Landsea CW: The deadliest, costliest, and most intense United States tropical cyclones from 1851 to 2006 (and other frequently requested hurricane facts). NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS TPC-5. Miami, FL: US Department of Commerce, National Weather Service, National Hurricane Center, 2007.

Barnes J: Florida’s hurricane history. 2nd ed. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Jarrell JD, Hebert PJ, Mayfield M: Hurricane experience levels of coastal county populations from Texas to Maine. Coral Gables. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-46. FL: US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, 1992.

Eosco GM, Hooke, WH: Coping with hurricanes. Bull Am Meteorol Soc. 2006; 87: 751-753.

Curry GL, Coulson RN, Gan J, et al.: An optimization-based system model of disturbance-generated forest biomass utilization. Bull Sci Technol Soc. 2008; 28: 486-495.

Powell MD, Aberson SD: Accuracy of United States tropical cyclone landfall forecasts in the Atlantic Basin (1976-2000). Bull Am Meteorol Soc. 2001; 82: 2749-2767.

Broad K, Leiserowitz A, Weinkle J, et al.: Misinterpretations of the “Cone of Uncertainty” in Florida during the 2004 hurricane season. Bull Am Meteorol Soc. 2007; 88: 651-667.

Reinhart DR, McCreanor PT: Disaster debris management—Planning tools. Final report submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida. 1999.

Tanner EVJ, Kapos V, Healey JR: Hurricane effects on forest ecosystems in the Caribbean. Biotropica. 1991; 23: 513-521.

Greenhorne and O’Mara, Inc.: Flood Hazard Mitigation Plan. Greenbelt, MD: Greenhorne and O’Mara, Inc., 1999.

Boucher DH, Rodick CL, Bailey JN, et al.: Hurricane Isabel and the forests of the mid-Atlantic Piedmont and Blue Ridge: Short-term impacts and long-term projections. In Sellner KG (ed.): Hurricane Isabel in Perspective. Edgewater, MD: Chesapeake Research Consortium. CRC Publication 05-160, 2005: 201-208.

McNulty SG: Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration. Environ Pollut. 2002; 116: S17-S24.

Conner WH: Impact of hurricanes on forests of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. In Haymond JL, Harms WR (eds.): Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research and Management Related to the Storm. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station. General Technical Report SRS-5, 1996: 6-12.

Southern Group of State Foresters: Disaster Response Handbook for State Forestry Agencies.Winder, GA: Southern Group of State Foresters, 2007.

Merry K, Bettinger P, Hepinstall J: Physical and biological responses of forests to tropical cyclones affecting the United States Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Am J Environ Sci. 2009; 5(1): 16-32.

Jordan CL, Hurt DA, Lowrey CA: On the structure of Hurricane Daisy on 27 August 1958. J Meteorol. 1960; 17: 337-348.

Mayfield M, Avila L, Rappaport ED: Atlantic Hurricane season of 1992. Monthly Weather Rev. 1994; 122: 517-538.

Doyle TW, Leeland BD, Gorham LE, et al.: Structural impact of Hurricane Andrew on the forested wetlands of the Atchafalaya basin in south Louisiana. J Coast Res. 1995; 21(SI): 354-364.

Lee R, Smith R: Environmental assessment: Hurricane Katrina tree removal and hazardous fuels treatment project. Supporting documentation for Katrina recovery project environmental assessment. Jackson, MS: National Forests in Mississippi, 2005. Available at www.fs.fed.us/r8/mississippi/katrina/EA/Katrina_Salvage_ea.pdf. Accessed May 9, 2008.

Purvis JC: History of damaging storms affecting South Carolina forests including a review of Hurricane Hugo’s impact on South Carolina’s forests. In Haymond JL, Harms WR (eds.): Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research and Management Related to the Storm. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station. General Technical Report SRS-5, 1996: 2-5.

Marshall TP: Hurricane Katrina damage survey. In 27th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology. Washington, DC: American Meteorology Society, 2006. Available at http://ams. confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/106926.pdf. Accessed July 28, 2008.

Orton R: Tornadoes associated with hurricane Beulah on September 19-23, 1967. Monthly Weather Rev. 1970; 98: 541-547.

Anthes RA: Tropical cyclones, their evolution, structure and effects. Meteorol Monogr. 1982; 19: 41.

Putz FE, Coley PD, Lu K, et al.: Uprooting and snapping of trees: Structural determinants and ecological consequences. Can J Forest Res. 1983; 13: 1011-1020.

Cremer KW, Borough CJ, McKinnell FH, et al.: Effects of stocking and thinning on wind damage in plantations. N Z J Forestry Sci. 1982; 12: 244-268.

Mayer H:Wind-induced tree sways. Trees. 1987; 1: 195-206.

Xi W, Peet RK, Urban DL: Changes in forest structure, species diversity and spatial pattern following hurricane disturbance in a Piedmont North Carolina forest, USA. J Plant Ecol. 2008; 1: 43-57.

Busby JA: Studies on the stability of conifer stands. Scottish Forestry. 1965; 19: 86-102.

Jacobs MR: The effect of winds on trees. Aust Forestry. 1936; 1: 25-32.

Mergen F: Mechanical aspects of wind-breakage and windfirmness. J Forestry. 1954; 52: 119-125.

Marion DA, Leftwhich K: Recommendations for controlling stream impacts following Hurricane Katrina on the De Soto National Forest. Supporting documentation for Katrina recovery project environmental assessment. Jackson, MS: National Forests in Mississippi, 2005. Available at www.fs.fed.us/r8/mississippi/katrina/ EA/Supporting_Documentation/Controlling_Stream_Impacts_ Report.pdf. Accessed May 9, 2008.

Grisez TJ: Hurricane Damage on Penobscot Experimental Forest. Upper Darby, PA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. Forest Research Note NE-39, 1954.

Craighead FC, Gilbert VC: The effects of Hurricane Donna on the vegetation of southern Florida. Quarterly J Fl Acad Sci. 1962; 25: 1-28.

Nix LE, Hook DD,Williams JG, et al.: Assessment of hurricane damage to the Santee Experimental Forest and the Francis Marion National Forest with a geographic information system. In Haymond JL, Harms WR (eds.): Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research and Management Related to the Storm. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station. General Technical Report SRS-5, 1996: 44-51.

Trousdell KB, Williams WC, Nelson TC: Damage to recently thinned loblolly pine stands. J Forestry. 1965; 63: 96-100.

Nelson TC, Stanley GW: Hurricane damage related to thinning intensity in east Texas slash line plantations. J Forestry. 1959; 57: 39.

Persson P: The influence of various thinning methods on the risk of windfalls, snow-breaks, and insect attacks. In Thinning and Mechanization, Proceedings of an IUFRO meetings. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal College of Forestry. 1970: 169-174.

Miller KF: Windthrow hazard in conifer plantations. Irish Forestry. 1986; 43: 66-78.

Fraser AI: The soil and roots as factors in tree stability. Forestry. 1962; 35: 117-127.

Schaetzl RJ, Johnson DL, Burns SF, et al.: Tree uprooting: Review of terminology, process, and environmental implications. Can J Forest Res. 1989; 19: 1-11.

Lanaux G: Second challenge: Rehabilitating hurricane damaged timberland. Forests People. 2007; 57(4): 16-17.

Marsinko AP, Straka TJ, Baumann JL: The effect of Hurricane Hugo on forest practice costs. In Haymond JL, Harms WR (eds.): Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research and Management Related to the Storm. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station. General Technical Report SRS-5, 1996a: 279-282.

Nodine SK: Easing the transition: Reducing the cost of reforesting lands damaged by Hurricane Hugo. In Haymond JL, Harms WR (eds.): Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research and Management Related to the Storm. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station. General Technical Report SRS-5, 1996: 447-449.

Straka TJ, Baker JB: A financial assessment of capital-extensive management alternatives for storm-damaged timber. South J Appl Forestry. 1991; 15: 208-212.

Wang H, Cho J, Shen J, et al.: What has been learned about storm surge dynamics from hurricane Isabel model simulation? In Sellner KG (ed.): Hurricane Isabel in Perspective. Edgewater, MD: Chesapeake Research Consortium. CRC Publication 05-160, 2005: 117-125.

Jarvinen B, Gebert J: Observed versus SLOSH model storm surge for Connecticut, New York and upper New Jersey in hurricane Gloria, September 1985. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC 36. Coral Gables, FL: US Department of Commerce, National Hurricane Center, 1987.

Jarvinen B, Gebert J: Comparison of observed versus SLOSH model computed storm surge hydrographs along the Delaware and New Jersey shorelines for hurricane Gloria, September 1985. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC 32. Coral Gables, FL: US Department of Commerce, National Hurricane Center, 1986.

Fritz HM, Blount C, Sokoloski R, et al.: Hurricane Katrina storm surge distribution and field observations on the Mississippi Barrier Islands. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 2007; 74: 17-20.

Ho FP, Miller JF: Pertinent meteorological and hurricane tide data for Hurricane Carla. NOAA Technical Report NWS 32. Silver Spring, MD: US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, 1982.

Johnson ZP, Luscher A: Management, planning, and policy conference sessions. In Sellner KG (ed.): Hurricane Isabel in Perspective.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.2009.0038

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Emergency Management