Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Conceptual framework and quantification of population vulnerability for effective emergency response planning

Suhasini Ramisetty-Mikler, PhD, MPH, Armin R. Mikler, PhD, Martin O’Neill, PhD, Jared Komatz, MPH, CPH, GISS

Abstract


Objective: The study focused on the methodological advancement and analytical approach of using multilevel data to define population vulnerability and risk in bioemergency disaster planning.

Methods: The authors considered two types of vulnerabilities, transportation vulnerability that stems from lack of access to transportation (public or private) and communication vulnerability that stems from unavailability of needed language-specific communication resources. The authors used Transit Authority general transit feed data and the American Community Survey 5-year estimate data (2006-2010 summary files) to quantify these vulnerabilities. These data were integrated with Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) data for spatial analysis. A response plan was generated for Tarrant County, TX, and deemed feasible before consideration of vulnerable populations.

Results: The results point to the importance of integrating geographical and population demographic features that represent potential barriers to the optimum distribution and utilization of resources into the analysis of response plans. An examination of transportation vulnerabilities indicate that, of those vulnerable in Tarrant County, nearly 23,000 individuals will be at-risk of not being able to reach the Point Of Dispensing (POD) to obtain services as they are beyond walking distance to the POD and lack access to transportation resources. The analysis of language vulnerability depicts an uneven distribution resulting in nonuniform demand at PODs for translation resources. There are more than 11,000 at-risk households in the South East region of Tarrant County alone that are truly in need of translation services.

Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that multiple vulnerabilities at each POD can be quantified by aggregating the vulnerability at the available granularity (ie, all blocks or block groups) in a given service area. The quantification of vulnerability at each service area facilitates a POD-based at-risk analysis for the response plan. Disparities stemming from social, behavioral, cultural, economic, and health characteristics of diverse subpopulations could induce the need for additional targeted resources to support emergency response efforts.


Keywords


disaster preparedness, response planning, points of dispensing, population vulnerability, vulnerability analysis, health disparities

Full Text:

PDF

References


Loucks DP, van Beek E, Stedinger JR, et al.: Water Resources Systems Planning and Management: An Introduction to Methods, Models and Applications. Paris, France: UNESCO, 2005.

The White House: President G.W. Bush Executive Order: Individuals with Disabilities in Emergency Preparedness. 2004. Available at http.//www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/resources/specialtopics/emergencypre/eo13347disabilitiesemergencypreparedness.pdf. Accessed July 23, 2013.

Andrulis DP, Siddiqui NJ, Gantner JL: Preparing racially and ethnically diverse communities for public health emergencies. Health Aff. 2007; 26(5): 1269-1279.

Lurie N, Wasserman J, Nelson CD: Public health preparedness: Evolution or revolution? Health Aff. 2006; 25(4): 935-945.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Points of Dispensing (POD) Standards. Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Recommended Infrastructure Standards for Mass Antibiotic Dispensing. April 2008. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/documents/coopagreement-archive/FY2008/DispensingStandards.pdf. Accessed July 2014.

Turner BL, Kasperson RE, Matson PA, et al.: A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003; 100(14): 8074-8079.

Jimenez T, Tiwari C, Mikler AR, et al.: Maps, rates, and fuzzy mountains. Generating meaningful risk maps. Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, Philadelphia, PA, 2012.

Gadain HM, Jama AM: Flood risk and response management. Technical Report No. W-15 produced under “Support to the Sustainable Management of the Shebelle and Juba Rivers in Southern Somalia Project.” GCP/SOM/047/EC, FAO-SWALIM. Nairobi, Kenya, 2009. 9. Cutter SL, Burton CG, Emrich CT: Disaster resilience indicators for benchmarking baseline conditions. J Homeland Secur Emerg Manag. 2010; 7(1).

Douben JK: Characteristics of river floods and flooding: A global overview, 1985-2003. Irrig Drain. 2006; 55(S1):S9-S21.

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (U.S. Government Printing Office): Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act, Public Law No. 113-5. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-113publ5/pdf/PLAW-113publ5.pdf. Accessed December 1, 2014.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security: Individuals with Disabilities in Emergency Preparedness: Executive Order 13347. July 2005 Department of Homeland Security Annual Report. Available at http.//www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/CRCL_IWDEP_AnnualReport_2005.pdf. Accessed August 2, 2013.

Lund HM, Cervero R, Wilson RW: Travel characteristics of transit-oriented development in California. Sacramento California Department of Transportation Technical Report. 2004; 95(17).

Patlolla P, Gunupudi V, Mikler AR, et al.: Agent-based simulation tools in computational epidemiology. In Innovative Internet Community Systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol 3473. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer. 2006: 212-223.

Schneider T, Mikler AR, O’Neill M: Computational tools for evaluating bioemergency contingency plans. In Disaster Management and Human Health Risk. Reducing Risk, Improving Outcomes. Ashurst, Southampton, UK: WIT Press, 2009: 33-44.

Schneider T, Mikler AR, Tiwari C: A novel space partitioning algorithm to improve current practices in facility placement. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern A: Syst Hum. 2012; 42(5): 1206-1215.

National Archives and Record Administration: The White House Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina. Technical Report. February 2006. Available at http.//georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/reports/katrina-lessons-learned/appendix-e.html. Accessed August 5, 2013.

Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response: Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act Progress Report on the Implementation of Provisions Addressing At-Risk Individuals. Department of Health & Human Services Technical Report. August 2008. Available at http.//www.phe.gov/Preparedness/legal/pahpa/Documents/pahpa-at-risk-report0901.pdf. Accessed July 24, 2013.

Lee KE, Chen CH, Pietz FP, et al.: Modeling and optimizing the public-health infrastructure for emergency response. Interfaces. 2009; 39(5): 476-490.

Wibowo SS, Olszewski P: Modeling walking accessibility to public transport terminals. Case study of Singapore mass rapid transit. J East Asia Soc Transp Stud. 2005; 1(6): 147-156.

Fernandez LS, Byard D, Lin CC, et al.: Frail elderly as disaster victims. Emergency management strategies. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2002; 17(2): 67-74.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Public Health Workbook to Define, Locate, and Reach Special, Vulnerable, and At-risk Populations in an Emergency. Available at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/workbook/pdf/ph_workbookFINAL.pdf. Accessed July 28, 2013.

Morrow BH: Identifying and mapping community vulnerability. Disasters. 1999; 23(1): 1-18.

Boyce JK: Let them eat risk? Wealth, rights and disaster vulnerability. Disasters. 2000; 24(3): 254-261.

Chou YJ, Huang N, Lee CH, et al.: Who is at risk of death in an earthquake? Am J Epidemiol. 2004; 160(7): 688-695.

Messias DK, Lacy E: Katrina-related health concerns of Latino survivors and evacuees. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007; 18(2): 443-464.

Spence PR, Lachlan K, Burke JM, et al.: Media use and information needs of the disabled during a natural disaster. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007; 18(2): 394-404.

O’Neill M II, Mikler AR, Schneider T: An extensible software architecture to facilitate disaster response planning. BIOCOMP. 2011; 2(1).

Adger WN: Social and ecological resilience. Are they related? Prog Hum Geogr. 2000; 24(3): 347-364.

Adger WN: Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change. Econ Geogr. 2003; 79(4): 387-404.

Adger WN: Vulnerability. Glob Environ Change. 2006; 16(3): 268-281.

Caruso C, Colorni A, Aloi L: Dominant, an algorithm for the p-center problem. Eur J Oper Res. 2003; 149(1): 53-64.

Cutter SL: Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Prog Hum Geogr. 1996; 20(4): 529-539.

Wu S, Yarnal B, Fisher A: Vulnerability of coastal communities to sea-level rise. A case study of Cape May County, New Jersey, USA. Clim Res. 2002; 22(1): 255-270.

Azar D, Rain D: Identifying population vulnerability to hydrological hazards in San Juan, Puerto Rico. GeoJournal. 2007; 69(1): 23-43.

Montz BE, Evans TA: GIS and social vulnerability analysis. In Gruntfest E, Handmer JW (eds.): Coping with Flash Floods. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 2001: 37-48.

Rashed TJ, Weeks HC, Herold M: An integrative GIS and remote sensing model for place-based urban vulnerability analysis. In Mesev V (ed.): Integration of GIS and Remote Sensing. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., 2007: 199-224.

Cutter SL, Barnes L, Berry M, et al.: A place based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Glob Environ Change. 2008; 18(4): 598-606.

Cutter SL, Boruff BJ, Shirley WL: Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Soc Sci Q. 2003; 84(2): 242-261.

Hazards and Vulnerability Research Institute: Social Vulnerability Index for the United States – 2006-10. Available at http://webra.cas.sc.edu/hvri/products/sovi.aspx. Accessed May 1, 2014.

Weichselgartner J: Disaster mitigation: The concept of vulnerability revisited. Disaster Prev Manag: Int J. 2001; 10(2): 85-95.

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (U.S. Government Printing Office): Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act, Public Law No. 109-417. Available at http.//www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-109publ417/pdf/PLAW-109publ417.pdf. Accessed July 22, 2013.

GTFS Data Exchange: Transit Agencies Providing GTSF Data. Available at http.//www.gtfs-data-exchange.com/agencies. Accessed August 10, 2013.

GoogleTransitDataFeed (GTDF) Open Source Software Project: Available at https.//code.google.com/p/googletransitdatafeed/. Accessed July 18, 2014.

U.S. Census Bureau: 2011 American Community Survey, Table B08201. Household Size by Vehicles Available. Available at http.//www.census.gov/acs/www/data_documentation/summary_file/. Accessed August 11, 2013.

U.S. Census Bureau: 2011 American Community Survey, Table B16002. Available at http.//www.census.gov/acs/www/data_documentation/summary_file/. Accessed August 11, 2013.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Available at http.//www.cdc.gov/brfss/data_documentation/index.htm. Accessed July 29, 2013.

Texas Department of State Health Services: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Available at http.//www.dshs.state.tx.us/chs/brfss/default.shtm. Accessed August 8, 2014.

Whiteman D: Federal Emergency Management Agency, Kiplinger, Ten U.S. States with Most Major Disasters. 2013. Available at http://dailyquiddity.blogspot.com/2013/05/ten-usstates-with-most-major-disasters.html. Accessed July 1, 2014.

Jorgustin K: FEMA “Major Disaster Declarations” Rank By State. May 25, 2013. Available at http://www.bankrate.com/finance/weather/natural-disasters/states-most-at-risk-for-major-disasters-1.aspx#ixzz39XO1narq. Accessed July 15, 2013.

National Medical Reserve Corps: Medical Reserve Corps Volunteers. Available at https.//www.medicalreservecorps.gov/HomePage. Accessed July 30, 2013.

Transportation Research Board (TRB): Transit Cooperative Research Program. In Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual. 2nd ed. Washington, DC, 2003.

Guerra E, Cervero R, Tischler D: Half-mile circle. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board. 2012; 2276(1): 101-109.

Pan American Health Organization: Information Management and Communication in Emergencies and Disasters: Manual for Disaster Response Teams. Washington, DC: PAHO, 2009. ISBN: 978-92-75-12993-7.

SAS Institute Inc.: Big data-What is it and why it matters? Available at http//www.sas.com/en_us/insights/big-data/what-isbig-data.html. Accessed July 22, 2014.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.2015.0236

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Journal of Emergency Management