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Decision-making in crisis management of a serious digital incident: A garbage can approach

Harald Fardal, PhD, Ann-Kristin Elstad, PhD


Managing crisis challenges the ability to make numerous decisions under great uncertainty. This study address the decision-making process, and how the mix of involved individuals, prior knowledge, and available decision-makers forms the decisions made during a crisis. A large-scale exercise with a cyberattack scenario was chosen as the study’s case. The organization studied have highly skilled crisis management personnel; however, they are not used to manage a large-scale cyber-attack scenario. The garbage can model (GCM) of Organizational Choice with a few modifications is used as the analytical framework in the study.


crisis management, decision-making, garbage can, cyber-attack, exercise, decision quality

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