Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Long-term impact of the Galtuer avalanche on the public health system

Nina Lorenzoni, MA, Margit Raich, PhD

Abstract


On February 23, 1999, an avalanche buried large parts of the village of Galtuer Austria, killing 31 people. The purpose of this paper is to examine the longer-term impact of this avalanche on the public health system. For the case study, we used a mixed-method approach consisting of a document study and expert interviews with people who were involved in the disaster-management operations. Many long-term changes were undertaken in the context of infrastructural measures, disaster-management structures, and coordination and cooperation within the existing system to protect people and property as well as to provide important information for decision makers. The investigation reveals the importance of situational approaches to the post-disaster phase depending on the recovery needs of those affected. Moreover, the value of social capital in a disaster situation is emphasized.

 


Keywords


disaster management, long-term impact, natural hazard, case study, public health, avalanche

Full Text:

PDF

References


Burkle FM, Greenough PG: Impact of public health emergencies on modern disaster taxonomy, planning, and response. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2008; 2(03): 192-199.

WHO: Trade, foreign policy, diplomacy and health. 2014. Available at http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story076/en. Accessed April 8, 2020.

WHO: Health Indicators of Disaster Risk Management in the Context of the Rio + 20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development. Vol. 371. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2012.

Bakker LP, Eriksen S, Reichelt JG, et al.: The experiences of dealing with consequences of an avalanche – surviving soldiers’ perspectives. Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2019; 14(1): 1689066.DOI:10.1080/17482631.2019.1689066.

Dell’Osso L, Carmassi C, Massimetti G, et al.: Full and partial PTSD among young adult survivors 10 months after the L’Aquila 2009 earthquake: Gender differences. J Affect Disord. 2011; 131(1-3): 79-83. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2010.11.023.

Hussain Y, Bagguley P: Funny looks: British Pakistanis’ experiences after 7 July 2005. Ethn Racial Stud. 2013; 36(1): 28-46. DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2011.645844.

Coffman M, Noy I: Hurricane iniki: Measuring the long-term economic impact of a natural disaster using synthetic control. Environ Dev Econ. 2011; 17(2): 187-205. DOI:10.1017/S1355770X11000350.

Nomura S, Parsons AJQ, Hirabayashi M, et al.: Social determinants of mid-to-long-term disaster impacts on health: A systematic review. In Proceedings of the 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference: Integrative Risk Management-Towar Resilient Cities, IDRC Davos 2016. 2016; 16: 472-475. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.01.013.

Hettige S, Haigh R: An integrated social response to disasters: The case of the Indian Ocean tsunami in Sri Lanka. Disaster Prev Manag. 2016; 25(5): 595-610. DOI:10.1108/DPM-11-2015-0263.

Berggren RE, Curiel TJ: After the storm—Health care infrastructure in post-Katrina New Orleans. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354(15): 1549-1552.

Donker GA, Yzermans CJ, Spreeuwenberg P, et al.: Symptom attribution after a plane crash: Comparison between self-reported symptoms and GP records. Br J Gen Pract. 2002; 52(484): 917-922.

Roorda J, Van Stiphout W, Huijsman-Rubingh RRR: Post-disaster health effects: Strategies for investigation and data collection. Experiences from the Enschede firework disaster. J Epidemiol Community Heal. 2004; 58(12): 982-987.

Tunstall S, Tapsell S, Green C, et al.: The health effects of flooding: Social research results from England and Wales. J Water Health. 2006; 4(3): 365-380.

Shoaf KI, Rottman SJ: The role of public health in disaster preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2000; 15(4): 18-20. DOI:10.1017/S1049023X00025243.

Zaetta C, Santonastaso P, Favaro A: Long-term physical and psychological effects of the Vajont disaster. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2011; 2(1): 8454.

Lindell MK, Prater C, Perry RW: Introduction to Emergency Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2006.

Caruso GD: The legacy of natural disasters: The intergenerational impact of 100 years of disasters in Latin America. J Dev Econ. 2017; 127: 209-233. DOI:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2017.03.007.

Lindell MK: Disaster Studies. Curr Sociol. 2013; 61(5–6), 797- 825. DOI: 10.1177/0011392113484456.

UNISDR: Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Geneva: UNISDR; 2015.

Thaler S: 8. Bericht Über Die Geschehnisse in Tirol Vom 19. 2. 1999 Bis Einschließlich 1.3.1999; 1999.

Peters M, Pikkemaat B: Crisis management in alpine winter sports resorts—The 1999 avalanche disaster in Tyrol. J Travel Tour Mark. 2005; 19(2-3): 9-20.

Rieken B: Schatten Über Galtür? Gespräche Mit Einheimischen Über Die Lawine von 1999. Münster: Waxmann; 2010.

Höller P: Avalanche hazards and mitigation in Austria: A review. Nat Hazards. 2007; 43(1): 81-101. DOI:10.1007/s11069-007-9109-2.

Koeck W: Die Lawine von Galtuer. Available at https://galtuer.gv.at/index.php/lawine-1999/96-die-lawine-von-galtuer. Accessed July 19, 2019.

Federal Ministry of Defense: Erinnerungen an Galtuer 1999. 2007. Available at http://www.bundesheer.at/cms/artikel.php?ID=3262#. Accessed July 19, 2019.

Frank J: A neutral’s perspective: The role of the Austrian Armed Forces in Homeland Security. Connect Q J. 2005; 04(3): 97-120.

Österreichischer Städtebund: Medienarbeit im Katastrophenfall Galtür. Österreichische Gemeindezeitung.

Ernstreiter C, Jelinek G, Liska P: Menschen & Mächte – Galtür 1999 Chroniken Einer Katastrophe. Austria: ORF; 2000.

Stötter J, Meissl G, Rinderer M, et al.: Galtuer - Eine Gemeinde im Zeichen des Lawinenereignisses von 1999. In Steinicke E (ed.): Geographischer Exkursionsführer Europaregion Tirol-Südtirol-Trentino. Innsbrucker Geographische Studien; 2002; 33(2): 167-184.

Yin RK: Case Study Research Design. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications; 2009.

Gummesson E: Qualitative research in management: Addressing complexity, context and persona. Manag Decis. 2006; 44(2): 167-179.

Zelger J: Twelve steps of GABEKWinRelan a procedure for qualitative opinion research, knowledge organization and systems development. In Buber R, Zelger J (eds.): GABEK II. Zur Qualitativen Forschung. On Qualitative Research. Innsbruck: Studienverlag; 2000, 205-220.

Evans DB, Murray C, WHO: Health systems performance assessment: Goals, framework and overview. In Evans DB, Murray C (eds.): Health Systems Performance Assessment: Debates, Methods and Empiricism. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.

Interagency Standing Committee: IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. 2008. Available at https://www.who.int/mental_health/emergencies/IASC_guidelines.pdf. Accessed August 8, 2020.

Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe: Psychosoziale Notfallversorgung: Qualitätsstandards Und Leitlinien Teil I Und II. 2012. Available at http://www.bbk.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/BBK/DE/Publikationen/Praxis_Bevoelkerungsschutz/Band_7_Praxis_BS_PSNV_Qualitaetsstandards-Leilinien.pdf?__blob=publicationFile.

Helmerichs J: Psycho-soziale Notfallversorgung im Großschadensfall und bei Katastrophen. In Lasogga F, Gasch B (eds.): Notfallpsychologie. Heidelberg: Springer Medizin Verlag; 2011. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-15308-2.

Brauchle G, Juen B, Hötzendorfer C, et al.: Die „Entdeckung“ der Katastrophe als Betätigungsfeld – kritische Betrachtungen über Helfer als „Helden“ am Beispiel der Lawinenkatastrophe von Galtür Brauchle Gernot, Juen Barbara, Hötzendorfer Christian, Bänninger-Huber Eva. Texte der Fachhochschule Villingen-Schwenningen, Hochschule für Polizei. 2000: 1-14.

Brauchle G, Juen B, Hötzendorfer C, et al.: Notfallpsychologie oder Psychotherapie. Aufgaben und Einsatzkriterien psychologischen Handelns in Großschadensereignissen.

Psychol Österreich. 2000; 20(5): 260-264.

Brauchle G, Gfader P: Disastersmyths and decision traps and how to overcome them. In IEEE International Workshop on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics, Bonn: IEEE Computer Society; 2004.

Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry: Galtür 15 Jahre danach. Available at http://www.naturgefahren.at/massnahmen/Galtuer-danach.html. Accessed July 19, 2019.

Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry: Berlakovich: Katastrophen wie Galtür so gut es geht zukünftig vermeiden. 2009. Available at https://www.ots.at/presseaussendung/OTS_20090619_OTS0145/berlakovich-katastrophen-wie-galtuer-so-gut-es-geht-zukuenftig-vermeiden. Accessed July 19, 2019.

Christler M: 20 Jahre Galtür: „Die Lawine ist ein Teil von uns“. Tiroler Tageszeitung. 2019. Available at https://www.tt.com/panorama/katastrophe/15342808/20-jahre-galtuer-die-lawine-istein-teil-von-uns. Accessed August 1, 2019.

Department of Civil Protection of the Tyrolean Government. ESIS-Einsatzinformationssystem Tirol. Available at https://www.tirol.gv.at/sicherheit/katziv/esisinfo/. Accessed August 13, 2019.

Généreux M, Lafontaine M, Eykelbosh A: From science to policy and practice: A critical assessment of knowledge management before, during, and after environmental public health disasters. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019; 16(4): 1-17. DOI:10.3390/ijerph16040587.

Schaffhauser H: Das Lawinensimulationsmodell SAMOS. Ländlicher Raum. 2002; (2): 1-12.

Roeder M: Galtuer: The 1999 avalanche disaster that triggered safety reforms. 2019. Available at https://www.dpa-international.com/topic/galtuer-1999-avalanche-disaster-triggered-safety-reformsurn%3Anewsml%3Adpa.com%3A20090101%3A190221-99-82238. Accessed December 29, 2019.

WHO: Key Components of a Well Functioning Health System. WHO: Geneva; 2010.

Oloruntoba R, Sridharan R, Davison G: A proposed framework of key activities and processes in the preparedness and recovery phases of disaster management. Disasters. 2018; 42(3): 541-570. DOI:10.1111/disa.12268.

Thévenaz C, Resodihardjo SL: All the best laid plans… conditions impeding proper emergency response. Int J Prod Econ. 2010; 126(1): 7-21.

Sjoberg M, Wallenius C, Larsson G: Leadership in complex, stressful rescue operations: A quantitative test of a qualitatively developed model. Disaster Prev Manag An Int J. 2011; 20(2): 199-212.

Boin A, Van Duin M, Heyse L: Toxic fear: The management of uncertainty in the wake of the Amsterdam air crash. J Hazard Mater. 2001; 88(2-3): 213-234.

Palttala P, Boano C, Lund R, et al.: Communication gaps in disaster management: Perceptions by experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. J Contingencies Cris Manag. 2012; 20(1): 2-12.

Ruggiero A, Vos M: Terrorism communication: Characteristics and emerging perspectives in the scientific literature 2002–2011. J Contingencies Cris Manag. 2013; 21(3): 153-166.

Cottle S: Rethinking media and disasters in a global age: What’s changed and why it matters. Media War Confl. 2014; 7(1): 3-22. DOI:10.1177/1750635213513229.

Lin X, Spence PR, Sellnow TL, et al.: Crisis communication, learning and responding: Best practices in social media. Comput Human Behav. 2016; 65: 601-605. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2016.05.080.

Cool CT, Claravall C, Hall L, et al.: Social media as a rsik communication tool following Typhoon Haiyan. Western Pacific Surveill Response J WPSAR. 2015; (6 (Suppl. 1)): 86-90. DOI:10.5365/wpsar.2015.6.2.HYN.

WHO: Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management Framework. Geneva: WHO; 2019. Available at https://www.who.int/hac/techguidance/preparedness/health-emergency-and-disasterrisk-management-framework-eng.pdf?ua=1.

Lumbroso D, Vinet F: Tools to improve the production of emergency plans for floods: Are they being used by the people that need them? J Contingencies Cris Manag. 2012; 20(3): 149-165.

Potter SH, Becker JS, Johnston DM, et al.: An overview of the impacts of the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2015; 14: 6-14. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.01.014.

Lucchini RG, Hashim D, Acquilla S, et al.: A comparative assessment of major international disasters: The need for exposure assessment, systematic emergency preparedness, and lifetime health care. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17(1). DOI:10.1186/s12889-016-3939-3.

Kaiser R: Qualitative Experteninterviews. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2014.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.0570

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Emergency Management