Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Urban Indigenous peoples: A conceptual hazard for Canada’s whole of society approach

Shelagh Roxburgh, PhD, Dan Peters, BA


It is widely accepted that the world is facing increasing risk of environmental emergency yet at the same time, there is also increasing vulnerability.


Indigenous peoples, Canada, society

Full Text:



United Nations: Making the Difference for Poverty, Health and Resilience: Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, 2015. New York: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, United States. Available at Accessed February 25, 2019.

Public Safety Canada: Emergency Management Strategy for Canada: Toward a Resilient 2030. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Government of Canada; 2019.

Statistics Canada: Statistics on Indigenous Peoples, Government of Canada, 2020. Available at Accessed April 28, 2020.

Fast E, Drouin-Gagné M-È, Bertrand N, et al.: Incorporating diverse understandings of Indigenous identity: Toward a broader Urban Indigenous People definition of cultural safety for urban Indigenous youth. AlterNative. 2017; 13(3): 152-160.

Morris M: A statistical portrait of inuit with a focus on increasing urbanization: Implications for policy and further research. Aboriginal Policy Stud. 2016; 5(2): 4-31.

Statistics Canada: Aboriginal Population Profile, 2016 Census. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Government of Canada; 2016. Available at Accessed April 28, 2020.

Rotondi MA, O’Campo P, O’Brien K, et al.: Our health counts Toronto: Using respondent-driven sampling to unmask census undercounts of an urban indigenous population in Toronto, Canada. BMJ Open. 2017; 17: 1-8.

Coombes B, Johnson JT, Howitt R: Indigenous geographies II: The aspirational spaces in postcolonial politics—reconciliation, belonging and social provision. Prog. Human Geography. 2012; 37(5): 691-700.

Environics Institute: Urban Aboriginal Peoples Study. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Environics Institute; 2010.

Yumagulova L, Phibbs S, Kenney CM, et al.: The role of disaster volunteering in Indigenous communities, Environ Hazards. 2019. DOI: 10.1080/17477891.2019.1657791.

Pearce L, Murphy B, Chrétien A: (2017) From displacement to hope: A guide for displaced indigenous communities and host communities. Contemporary Stud. 2017; 10: 1-44.

Mew EJ, Vander B, Ritchie D, et al.: An environmental scan of emergency response systems and services in remote First Nations communities in Northern Ontario. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1): 1-10.

Murphy B, Pearce L, Chretien A, et al.: Mutual Aid and Service Agreements: Wise Practices for First Nations Communities. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada; 2017.

Scharbach J, Waldram JB: Asking for a disaster: Being “at risk” in the emergency evacuation of a Northern Canadian Aboriginal Community. Human Organization, 2016; 75(1): 59-70.

Native Women’s Association of Canada: (2017) Indigenous Women Speak on Climate Change. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Native Women's Association of Canada; 2017.

Tierney K, Bevc C, Kuligowski E: Metaphors matter: Disaster myths, media frames and their consequences in hurricane Katrina. Ann Am Acad Political Soc Sci. 2006; 604(1): 57-81.

Stephens C: The indigenous experience of urbanization. In Minority Rights Group International, ed., State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. London, United Kingdom: Minority Rights Group International; 2015: 54-61. Available at Accessed February 25, 2019.

Choy DL, Clarke P, Serrao-Nuemann S, et al.: Coastal urban and peri-urban indigenous people's adaptive capacity to climate change. In Maheshwari B, et al., (eds.): Options and Strategies for Liveable Cities, Water Science and Technology Library; Cham, Switzerland: Springer; 2016: 441-461.

Place J: The Health of Aboriginal People Residing in Urban Areas. Prince George, British Colombia, Canada: National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health; 2012.

Government of Ontario: The Urban Indigenous Action Plan. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Government of Ontario; 2018.

Snyder M, Wilson K: ‘Too much moving…there's always a reason’: Understanding urban Aboriginal peoples’ experiences of mobility and its impact on holistic health. Health Place. 2015; 34: 181-189.

Belanger YD: The United Nations Declaration of the rights of indigenous peoples and urban aboriginal self-determination in Canada: A preliminary assessment, Aboriginal Policy Stud. 2011; 1(1): 132-161.

Loppie S, Reading C, de Leeuw S: Aboriginal Experiences with Racism and its Impacts, National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. Prince George, British Colombia, Canada: University of British Columbia: 2014; 1-12.

McKinzie AE: A tale of two cities: Variations in perceptions of disaster recovery and the importance of intersectionality. Sociol Race Ethnicity. 2017; 3(4): 522-537.

Smylie J, Firestone M: The health of indigenous peoples. In Raphael D, (ed.): Social Determinants of Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Scholars’ Press; 2016: 434-466.

Goodman A, Flemin K, Markwick N, et al.: They treated me like crap and I know it was because I was Native: The healthcare experiences of aboriginal peoples living in Vancouver's inner city. Soc. Sci. Med. 2017; 178: 87-94.

Dell EM, Firestone M, Smylie J, et al.: Cultural safety and providing care to aboriginal patients in the emergency department, Can J Emerg Med. 2015; 18(4): 301-305. DOI: 10.1017/cem.2015.100.

Palmater P: Shining light on the dark places: Addressing police racism and sexualized violence against indigenous women and girls at the national inquiry. Can J Women Law. 2016; 28(2): 253-284.

Mistry J, Bilbao BA, Berardi A: Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: Case studies from Indigenous communities of South America. Philos Trans R Soc B: Biol Sci. 2016; 371(1696): 1-10.

Kenney CM, Phibbs SR, Paton D, et al.: Community-led disaster risk management: A Māori response to Ōtautahi (Christchurch) earthquakes. Aust J Disaster Trauma Stud. 2015; 19(1): 9-20.

Bell C, Schreiner K: The international relations of police power in settler colonialism: The “civilizing” mission of Canada's Mounties. Int J: Can J Global Policy Anal. 2018; 73(1): 111-128.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Emergency Management