Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Status and view toward COVID-19 and mental health among vulnerable group: A cross-sectional rapid survey among rickshaw pullers of Bangladesh

Md Mostafizur Rahman, PhD, Abir Mohd Shakib Shahide, BSS, Mohammad Ashikul Islam Redoy, Farzana Rahman, PhD, Md Moshiur Rahman, PhD


Bangladesh has experienced the hardest coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) impact on the socioeconomic sector. The underprivileged group, rickshaw pullers, faced extreme situations due to the pandemic. This rapid cross-sectional study was conducted among 190 rickshaw pullers of Dhaka city. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) survey was carried out to evaluate their view and COVID-19 response level. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Statistical analyses such as Kruskal–Wallis or Mann–Whitney U tests, Spearman’s rank correlation, the linear regression model, Chi-square test, and Fisher’s exact test were performed where appropriate. The majority of them rated the high impact of COVID-19 on their income and mental health. Age, living with family, accommodation type, income, and COVID-19 infection history were found as associating factors with these impacts. A large number of the study population demonstrated low knowledge level (42.63 percent), moderate attitude level (57.37 percent), and moderate practice level (58.95 percent) toward COVID-19 and the vaccination. Positive attitude could reduce their mental health concern due to the pandemic. The study population mostly used their surrounding people as the main source of COVID-19 information. However, digital media have played a crucial role to disseminate authentic information. Ensuring better socioeconomic conditions can help these highly vulnerable people to be effectively prepared and respond against the pandemic.


COVID-19, informal settlement, Dhaka city, rickshaw pullers, vaccination

Full Text:



Hua J, Shaw R: Corona virus (COVID-19) “infodemic” and emerging issues through a data lens: The case of China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17(7): 2309. DOI:10.3390/ijerph17072309.

WHO: 2020. Available at Accessed June 13, 2020.

Zhong B-L, Luo W, Li H-M, et al.: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: A quick online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci. 2020; 16(10): 1745-1752. DOI:10.7150/ijbs.45221.

Namazi H, Kulish VV: Complexity-based classification of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Fractals. 2020; 28(5): 2050114-S68. DOI:10.1142/S0218348X20501145.

Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center: COVID-19 map. Available at Accessed December 19, 2020.

IEDCR: COVID-19 situation updates. Available at Accessed December 3, 2020.

Anwar S, Nasrullah M, Hosen MJ: COVID-19 and Bangladesh: Challenges and how to address them. Front Public Health. 2020; 8. DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2020.00154.

Hossain MS, Siddiqee MH, Siddiqi UR, et al.: Dengue in a crowded megacity: Lessons learnt from 2019 outbreak in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020; 14(8): e0008349. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008349.

Begum S, Sen B: Pulling rickshaws in the city of Dhaka: A way out of poverty? Environ Urban. 2005; 17(2): 11-25. DOI:10.1177 %2F095624780501700202.

Islam MS, Hakim MA, Kamruzzaman M, et al.: Socioeconomic profile and health status of rickshaw pullers in rural Bangladesh. American Journal of Food Science and Health. AJFSH. 2016; 2(4): 32-38.

Karim PR, Salam KA: Organising the Informal Economy Workers: A Study of Rickshaw Pullers in Dhaka City. Bangladesh Institute of Labour Studies-BILS, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2019.

The Business Standard: Low-income people leaving Dhaka. Published June 23, 2020. Available at Accessed April 24, 2021.

Ahmed F, Sifat RI: The Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the rickshaw-puller in Bangladesh. J Loss Trauma. 2020; 26(08): 1-8. DOI:10.1080/15325024.2020.1852823.

Rahman MM, Khan SJ, Sakib MS, et al.: COVID-19 responses among general people of Bangladesh: Status and individual view toward COVID-19 during lockdown period. Rodriguez-Blazquez C, (ed.): Cogent Psychology. 2021; 8(1): 1860186. DOI:10.1080/233119 08.2020.1860186.

Rahman MM, Khan SJ, Sakib MS, et al.: COVID-19 responses among university students of Bangladesh: Assessment of status and individual view toward COVID-19. J Hum Behav Soc Environ. 2021; 31(1-4): 1-20. DOI:10.1080/10911359.2020.1822978.

Rahman MM, Khan SJ, Sakib MS, et al.: Assessing the psychological condition among general people of Bangladesh during COVID-19 pandemic. J Hum Behav Soc Environ. Published online December 17, 2020; 31(1-4): 1-15. DOI:10.1080/10911359.2020.1848688.

Ursachi G, Horodnic IA, Zait A: How reliable are measurement scales? External factors with indirect influence on reliability estimators. Procedia Economics and Finance. Procedia Econ. 2015; 20: 679-686. DOI:10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00123-9.

Radhakrishna RB: Tips for developing and testing questionnaires/instruments. J Ext. 2007; 45(1): 1-4.

RStudio: Open source and professional software for data science teams. Available at Accessed January 15, 2021.

Gillani AH, Mohamed Ibrahim MI, Akbar J, et al.: Evaluation of disaster medicine preparedness among healthcare profession students: A cross-sectional study in Pakistan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17(6): 2027. DOI:10.3390/ijerph17062027.

Raosoft, Inc.: Sample size calculator. Available at Accessed November 12, 2020.

Exchange rates. Available at Accessed February 16, 2021.

Kamruzzaman M: Coronavirus: Poor Income Drops 80 Percent in Bangladesh. BRAC Institute of Governance and Development. Published online 2020.

Bangladesh launches mass vaccinations amid challenges. Available at Accessed February 15, 2021.

Demographia UN: Demographia world urban areas: Population projections. Obtenido de Demographia: Available at, 2010. Accessed February 15, 2021.

Khan SJ, Prodhan S, Haque A, et al.: Government and NGO provided water interventions and its effectiveness on urban poor: A study in Gazipur Sadar area. Water, Flood Management and Water Security Under a Changing Climate. Springer, 2020: 315-330.

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics: 2012.

Math SB, Nirmala MC, Moirangthem S, et al.: Disaster man¬agement: Mental health perspective. Indian J Psychol Med. 2015; 37(3): 261-271. DOI:10.4103/0253-7176.162915.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Emergency Management