Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

The influence of individualistic worldviews on severe weather preparation

Maitlyn (Brucks) Lydahl, MPA, Jennifer Le, MPA, Mark Shafer, PhD, Aimee L. Franklin, PhD

Abstract


How do people think they should prepare for tornadoes? To answer this question, we surveyed 340 people in six states in tornado alley and presented eight severe weather preparation choice sets that varied short and long-term benefits and costs with benefits or to the individual or to the community. Fifty-six percent of respondents preferred tornado preparations for the long-term that benefit individuals rather than the community. Correlations between personal characteristics, future expectations, and an individual’s preferred preparation strategy show that being married, expecting stronger tornados, and having an individualistic worldview significantly increased the choice of individual preparation options. Past tornado experience and one’s current protection level were not significantly related to individual-minded preparation choices. Out of 18 independent variables analyzed, individual worldview was the best predictor of a person’s preferences. Individual worldview by itself had better predictive power than a regression model that included an individual’s socioeconomic status, past severe weather experience, expectations about future tornados, and current protective measures for severe weather by itself. These findings can inform elected officials considering public policies for natural disaster preparedness and deciding between tradeoffs for keeping government costs low or providing benefits for everyone in the community. Our results are useful for planners and emergency managers who develop strategies to encourage tornado preparation by citizens in the community. For example, emergency managers can replicate the study with options specific to their community to determine what government communications or actions could prompt individuals to put protective measures in place.


Keywords


severe weather preparation, individual worldview, climate science policy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Li S, Xing J: Fiscal policies to promote alternative fuel vehicles. Proceedings. Annual Conference on Taxation and Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the National Tax Association. 2016; 109: 1-28. Available at https://www.jstor.org/stable/26816557. Accessed June 30, 2021.

Davlasheridze M, Fisher-Vanden K, Allen Klaiber H: The effects of adaptation measures on hurricane induced property losses: Which FEMA investments have the highest returns. J Environ Econ Manag. 2017; 81: 93-114. DOI: 10.1016/j.jeem.2016.09.005.

Diekmann ST, O’Neil ME, Mack KA: Qualitative study of homeowners’ emergency preparedness: Experiences, perceptions and practices. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007; 22(6): 494-501.

Afonso WB: Fiscal illusion in state and local finances: A hindrance to transparency. State Local Gov Rev. 2014; 46(3): 219-228.

Liu S, Quenemoen LE, Malilay J, et al.: Assessment of a severe-weather warning system and disaster preparedness, Calhoun county, Alabama, 1994. Am J Public Health. 1996; 86(1): 87-89. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.86.1.87

Keim ME: Building human resilience: The role of public health preparedness and response as an adaptation to climate change. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 35(5): 508-516. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.022.

Lindell MK, Perry RW: The protective action decision model: Theoretical modifications and additional evidence. Risk Anal. 2012; 32(4): 616-632. DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01647.x.

Scovell M, McShane C, Swinbourne A, et al.: Applying the protective action decision model to explain cyclone shutter installation behavior. Nat Hazards Rev. 2021; 22(1): 04020043. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000417.

Slovic P: Perception of risk. Science. 1987; 236(4799): 280-285. 10. Donahue AK: Risky business: Willingness to pay for disaster preparedness. Public Budg Financ. 2014; 34(4): 100-119. DOI:10.1111/pbaf.12051.

Pennell A: The influence of tornadic experiences on severe weather preparedness: A comparative study of Abiline, Texas and Huntsville, Alabama. Natl Weather Dig. 2009; 33(1): 103-118.

Kapucu N: Collaborative emergency management: Better community organising, better public preparedness and response. Disasters. 2008; 32(2): 239-262. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2008.01037.x.

Subia GS, Mangiduyos GP, Turgano JBD: Emergency preparedness of novo ecijanos. J Soc Sci. 2020; 8(3): 17-23. DOI: 10.4236/jss.2020.83003.

Kanakis K, McShane C: Preparing for disaster: Preparedness in a flood and cyclone prone community. Aust J Emerg Manag. 2016; 31(2): 18.

Donahue AK, Eckel CC, Wilson RK: Ready or not? How citizens and public officials perceive risk and preparedness. Am Rev Public Adm. 2014; 44(4 Suppl.): 89S-111S. DOI: 10.1177/0275074013506517.

Dickie M, Gerking S: Formation of risk beliefs, joint production and willingness to pay to avoid skin cancer. Rev Econ Stat. 1996; 78(3): 451. DOI: 10.2307/2109792.

Fothergill A, Peek LA: Poverty and disasters in the United States: A review of recent sociological findings. Nat Hazards. 2004; 32(1): 89-110. DOI: 10.1023/B:NHAZ.0000026792.76181.d9.

Council NR: Earthquake Prediction and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1975. DOI: 10.17226/20195.

Duncombe W, Robbins M, Stonecash J: Measuring citizen preferences for public services using surveys: Does a “gray peril” threaten funding for public education? Public Budget Finan. 2003; 23(1): 45-72. DOI: 10.1111/1540-5850.2301003.

Bubeck P, Botzen WJW, Aerts JCJH: A review of risk perceptions and other factors that influence flood mitigation behavior: Review of flood risk perceptions. Risk Anal. 2012; 32(9): 1481-1495. DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01783.x.

Martin WE, Martin IM, Kent B: The role of risk perceptions in the risk mitigation process: The case of wildfire in high risk communities. J Environ Manag. 2009; 91(2): 489-498. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.09.007.

Weber EU: Experience-based and description-based perceptions of long-term risk: Why global warming does not scare us (yet). Clim Change. 2006; 77(1-2): 103-120. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-006-9060-3.

Knuth D, Kehl D, Hulse L, et al.: Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: A cross-national study with European emergency survivors. Risk Anal. 2014; 34(7): 1286-1298. DOI: 10.1111/risa.12157.

Wallace ZC, Keys-Mathews L, Hill AA: The role of experience in defining tornado risk perceptions: A case from the 27 April 2011 outbreak in rural Alabama. Southeast Geogr. 2015; 55(4): 400-416. DOI: 10.1353/sgo.2015.0035.

US Public Views on Climate and Energy: Pew research center science & society. 2019. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/science/2019/11/25/u-s-public-views-on-climate-and-energy/. Accessed August 19, 2020.

Yale Climate Opinion Maps: Yale program on climate change communication. 2020. Available at https://climatecommunication.yale.edu/visualizations-data/ycom-us/. Accessed November 1, 2020.

Sharot T: The optimism bias. Curr Biol. 2011; 21(23): R941-R945. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2011.10.030.

Morris BS, Chrysochou P, Karg ST, et al.: Optimistic vs. pessimistic endings in climate change appeals. Palgrave Commun. 2020; 7(1): 1-8.

Jauernic ST, Van Den Broeke MS: Perceptions of tornadoes, tornado risk, and tornado safety actions and their effects on warning response among Nebraska undergraduates. Nat Hazards. 2016; 80(1): 329-350. DOI: 10.1007/s11069-015-1970-9.

Botzen WJW, Kunreuther H, Michel-Kerjan E: Divergence between individual perceptions and objective indicators of tail risks: Evidence from floodplain residents in New York City. Judgm Decis Mak. 2015; 10(4): 21.

Gottlieb R: SCIPP Tornado Information Document. Norman, OK: Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program (SCIPP), 2010.

Collins ML, Kapucu N: Early warning systems and disaster preparedness and response in local government. Disaster Prev Manag. 2008; 17(5): 587-600. DOI: 10.1108/09653560810918621.

Douglas M: A history of grid and group cultural theory. Available at http://projects.chass.utoronto.ca/semiotics/cyber/douglas1.pdf. Accessed July 29, 2021.

Song G, Silva CL, Jenkins-Smith HC: Cultural worldview and preference for childhood vaccination policy: Childhood vaccination policy. Policy Stud J. 2014; 42(4): 528-554. DOI: 10.1111/psj.12076.

McCredie MN, Morey LC: Who are the Turkers? A characterization of MTurk workers using the personality assessment inventory. Assessment. 2019; 26: 759-766. DOI: 10.1177/1073191118760709.

Elazar DJ: American Federalism: A View from the States. Washington, DC: Crowell, 1966.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.0614

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Emergency Management