Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Information sharing behaviors in text-based communication during emergency response

Kristin Weger, PhD, Vineetha Menon, PhD, Angela Hollingsworth, DNP, RN, CEN, NEA-BC, Harald Schaub, PhD

Abstract


Emergency response teams consist of highly experienced professionals who must effectively communicate to respond to crisis situations characterized by high levels of uncertainty and complexity. Although the existing literatures on team collaboration and information processing are well established, research examining team information sharing through text-based communication technology facing emergency situations is limited. With the increasing complex nature of emergency response situations, emergency response organizations are likely to introduce new technologies to address such events. In this paper, we examine text-based information sharing behaviors related to team situation awareness in a simulated fire-rescue operation of 62 teams. We elaborate on different types of information sharing behaviors and identify a typology and linguistic features as well as differences between high- and low-performing teams in the occurrence of team situational information sharing behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications for emergency response teams and implications for future research avenues.


Keywords


emergency response team, text-based communication, information sharing, team situation awareness

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bigley GA, Roberts KH: The incident command system: High-reliability organizing for complex and volatile task environments. Acad Manag J. 2001; 44(6): 1281-1299.

Smith W, Dowell J: A case study of co-ordinative decision-making in disaster management. Ergonomics. 2000; 43(8): 1153-1166.

van der Haar S, Segers M, Jehn K, et al.: Investigating the relation between team learning and the team situation model. Small Group Res. 2015; 46(1): 50-82.

Lee J, Woeste JH, Heath RL: Getting ready for crises: Strategic excellence. Public Relat Rev. 2007; 33(3): 334-336.

Tschan F, Semmer NK, Gautschi D, et al.: Leading to recovery: Group performance and coordinative activities in medical emergency driven groups. Hum Perform. 2006; 19(3): 277-304.

Gazley B, Brudney J: Collaboration and partnership: Preparing local networks for emergency situations. In Ninth National Public Management Research Conference. 2007. Tucson: Eller College of Management, University of Arizona.

Granot H: Emergency inter-organizational relationships. Disaster Prevent Manag. 1997; 6: 305-310.

Kapucu N, Yuldashev F, Feldheim MA: Nonprofit organizations in disaster response and management: A network analysis. Eur J Econ Polit Stud. 2011; 4(1): 83-112.

Simo G, Bies AL: The role of nonprofits in disaster response: An expanded model of cross-sector collaboration. Pub Adm Rev. 2007; 67: 125-142.

Martin E, Nolte I, Vitolo E: The four Cs of disaster partnering: Communication, cooperation, coordination and collaboration. Disasters. 2016; 40(4): 621-643.

Waugh WL, Streib G: Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management. Pub Adm Rev. 2006; 66: 131-140.

Waller MJ, Huber GP, Glick WH: Functional background as a determinant of executives’ selective perception. Acad Manag J. 1995; 38(4): 943-974.

Lachner J, Hellwagner H: Information and communication systems for mobile emergency response. In International United Information Systems Conference. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008: 213-224.

Andrew SA, Chatterjee V, Namuduri K, et al.: Patterns of communication during full-scale emergency/disaster drills. J Emerg Manag. 2021; 19(6): 575-589.

Kapucu N: Interagency communication networks during emergencies: Boundary spanners in multiagency coordination. Am Rev Pub Adm. 2006; 36(2): 207-225.

Chen R, Sharman R, Rao HR, et al.: Coordination in emergency response management. Commun ACM. 2008; 51(5): 66-73.

Goralnick E, Halpern P, Loo S, et al.: Leadership during the Boston Marathon Bombings: A qualitative after-action review. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2015; 9(5): 489-495. DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2015.42.

Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency, Massachusetts Department of Public Health: After action report for the response to the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings: Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency. 2014. Available at https://www.mass.gov/doc/after-action-report-for-the-response-to-the-2013-boston-marathonbombings/download. Accessed November 12, 2021.

Goldberg BS, Hall JE, Pham PK, et al.: Text messages by wireless mesh network vs voice by two-way radio in disaster simulations: A crossover randomized-controlled trial. Am J Emerg Med. 2021; 48: 148-155.

Mortiz S, Levin J: Puerto Ricans hunt for phone signals a week after hurricane. Bloomberg Online. 2017. Available at https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-09-27/puerto-ricans-drivearound-for-phone-signals-a-week-after-storm. Accessed February 2, 2022.

Office of Inspector General: Hospital emergency preparedness and response during superstorm sandy. J Healthc Protect Manag. 2015; 31(1): 31-50.

Wohlsteter J: KATRINA: The sound of communications silence. Bandwidth: An Online Newsletter of the Discovery Institute. 2015. Available at https://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&printerFriendly=true&id=2881. Accessed February 1, 2022.

Heires K: The rebirth of mesh networks. Risk Manag. 2015; 62(8): 38.

Portmann M, Pirzada AA: Wireless Mesh Networks for Public Safety and Disaster Recovery Communications. A.s.I.RC o. Excellence. nicta. com. au ed. Australia: Australia’s ICT Research Centre of Excellence, 2006.

Portmann M: Wireless mesh networks for public safety and disaster recovery applications. Wireless Mesh Netw. 2006; 545.

Gutwin C, Greenberg S: The importance of awareness for team cognition in distributed collaboration. In Salas E, Fiore SM (eds.): Team Cognition: Understanding the Factors that Drive Process and Performance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2004: 177-201.

Rico R, Sánchez-Manzanares M, Gil F, et al.: Team implicit coordination processes: A team knowledge-based approach. Acad Manag Rev. 2008; 33(1): 163-184.

Roth EM, Multer J, Raslear T: Shared situation awareness as a contributor to high reliability performance in railroad operations. Organiz Stud. 2006; 27(7): 967-987.

Uitdewilligen S, Waller M: Information sharing and decision-making in multidisciplinary crisis management teams. J Organ Behav. 2018; 39: 731-748.

Lavery GG, Horan E: Clinical review: Communication and logistics in the response to the 1998 terrorist bombing in Omagh, Northern Ireland. Crit Care. 2005; 9(4): 1-8.

Ballard DI, Tschan F, Waller MJ: All in the timing: Considering time at multiple stages of group research. Small Group Res. 2008; 39(3): 328-351.

Herring SC: Computer-mediated discourse. In Schiffrin D, Tannen D, Hamilton H (eds.): The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2001: 612-634.

Lindner K, Blosser G, Cunigan K: Visual versus auditory learning and memory recall performance on short-term versus long-term tests. Mod Psychol Stud. 2009; 15(1): 6.

Fiore SM, Rosen MA, Smith-Jentsch K, et al.: Toward an understanding of macrocognition in teams: Predicting processes in complex collaborative contexts. Hum Factors. 2010; 52: 203-224. DOI: 10.1177/0018720810369807.

Stahl G: Group Cognition: Computer Support for Building Collaborative Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

Schraagen JM, van de Ven J: Human factors aspect of ICT for crisis management. Cogn Tech Work. 2011; 13(3): 175-187. DOI: 10.1007/s10111-011-0175-6.

Cooke NJ, Salas E, Cannon-Bowers JA, et al.: Measuring team knowledge. Hum Factors. 2000; 42(1): 151-173.

Cooke NJ, Salas E, Kiekel PA, et al.: Advances in measuring team cognition. In Salas E (ed.): Team Cognition: Understanding the Factors that Drive Process and Performance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2004: 83-106.

Cooke NJ, Gorman JC, Kiekel PA: Communication as team-level cognitive processing. In Macrocognition in Teams: Theories and Methodologies. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2008: 51-64.

Endsley MR, Jones WM: Situation awareness information dominance and information warfare. Technical Report No. AL/CF-TR-1997-0156. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: US Air Force, Armstrong Laboratory. 1997. Available at www.satechnologies.com/Papers. Accessed January 3, 2022.

Weger K: A Classification of Behavior Indicators Exhibited in Team Communication: The Intricate Role of Team Reflexivity with Team Cognition, Regulatory Processes and Performance. Bamberg: University of Bamberg Press, 2018.

Bolstad CA, Foltz P, Franzke M, et al.: Predicting situation awareness from team communications. Proc Hum Factors Ergon Soc Ann Meet. 2007; 51(12): 789-793.

Demir M, McNeese NJ, Cooke NJ: Team situation awareness within the context of human-autonomy teaming. Cogn Syst Res. 2017; 46(3): 3-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogsys.2016.11.003.

Endsley MR: Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Hum Factors. 1995; 37: 32-64.

Kennedy DM, McComb SA: Merging internal and external processes: Examining the mental model convergence process through team communication. Theor Issues Ergon Sci. 2010; 11(4): 340-358.

Keyton J, Beck SJ, Asbury MB: Macrocognition: A communication perspective. Theor Issues Ergon Sci. 2010; 11(4): 272-286.

Stasser G, Titus W: Pooling of unshared information in group decision making—biased information sampling during discussion. J Personal Soc Psychol. 1985; 48: 1467-1478.

Faulmüller N, Kerschreiter R, Mojzisch A, et al.: Beyond group-level explanations for the failure of groups to solve hidden profiles: The individual preference effect revisited. Group Process Intergroup Relat. 2010; 13(5): 653-671.

Otte KP, Konradt U, Oldeweme M: Effective team reflection: The role of quality and quantity. Small Group Res. 2018; 49(6): 739-766.

Sohrab SG, Waller MJ, Kaplan S: Exploring the hidden-profile paradigm: A literature review and analysis. Small Group Res. 2015; 46(5): 489-535.

Baumann MR, Bonner BL: Member awareness of expertise information sharing, information weighting, and group decision making. Small Group Res. 2013; 44(5): 532-562.

Rentsch JR, Mello AL, Delise LA: Collaboration and meaning analysis process in intense problem-solving teams. Theor Issues Ergon Sci. 2010; 11(4): 287-303.

Durso FT, Gronlund SD: Situation awareness. In Handbook of Applied Cognition. Hoboken: Wiley, 1999: 283-314.

Weick KE, Sutcliffe KM, Obstfeld D: Organizing and the process of sense-making. Organiz Sci. 2005; 16(4): 409-421.

Burt G, Chermack TJ: Learning with scenarios: Summary and critical issues. Adv Dev Hum Resour. 2008; 10(2): 285-295.

Chermack TJ, Bodwell W, Glick M: Two strategies for leveraging teams toward organizational effectiveness: Scenario planning and organizational ambidexterity. Adv Dev Hum Resour. 2010; 12(1): 137-156.

Brown G, Yule G: Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Murray DE: CmC: A report on the nature and evolution of online e-message. Engl Today. 1990; 23: 42-46.

Hollnagel E, Woods DD: Joint Cognitive Systems: Foundations of Cognitive Systems Engineering. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2005.

Vieweg S, Hughes AL, Starbird K, et al.: Microblogging during two natural hazards events: What Twitter may contribute to situational awareness. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: ACM, 2010: 1079-1088.

Cooke NJ, Gorman JC, Myers CW, et al.: Interactive team cognition. Cogn Sci. 2013; 37(2): 255-285. DOI: 10.1111/cogs.12009.

Parush A, Kramer C, Foster-Hunt T, et al.: Exploring similarities and differences in teamwork across diverse healthcare contexts using communication analysis. Cogn Tech Work. 2014; 16(1): 47-57.

Parush A, Kramer C, Foster-Hunt T, et al.: Communication and team situation awareness in the or: Implications for augmentative information display. J Biomed Inform. 2011; 44(3): 477-485. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2010.04.002.

Manning CD, Schütze H: Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999.

Palmer M, Gildea D, Xue N: Semantic role labeling. In Hirst G (ed.): Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies. San Rafael, CA: Morgan & Claypool, 2010.

Kipper-Schuler K: VerbNet: A Broad-Coverage, Comprehensive Verb Lexicon. PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 2006.

Carreiras M, Carriedo N, Alonso MA, et al.: The role of verb tense and verb aspect in the foregrounding of information during reading. Mem Cogn. 1997; 25(4): 438-446.

Richter S, Lechner U: Communication content relations to coordination and trust over time: A computer game perspective. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Communities and Technologies. 2011: 60-68. DOI: 10.1145/2103354.2103363.

Pomerantz A, Fehr BJ: Conversation analysis: An approach to the study of social action as sense making practices. In Van Dijk TA (ed.): Discourse as Social Interaction. London: Sage, 1997: 64-91.

Davies JM: Team communication in the operating room. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005; 49(7): 898-901.

Kennedy DM, McComb SA: When teams shift among processes: Insights from simulation and optimization. J Appl Psychol. 2014; 99(5): 784-815. DOI: 10.1037/a0037339.

Palmer M, Hwang JD, Brown SW, et al.: Leveraging lexical resources for the detection of event relations. In Proc. AAAI Spring Symposium on Learning by Reading. 2009: 81-87.

Galasso J: Analyzing English Grammar: An Introduction to Feature Theory. Northridge: California State University, 2002.

Kuiper K, Allan WS: An Introduction to English Language: Word, Sound and Sentence. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Walker GH, Stanton NA, Salmon PM, et al.: Beyond NEC. Yeovil: Aerosystems, 2009.

Gorman JC, Cooke NJ, Pederson HK, et al.: Coordinated awareness of situation by teams (CAST): Measuring team situation awareness of a communication glitch. Proc Hum Factors Ergon Soc Ann Meet. 2005; 49(3): 274-277. DOI: 10.1177/154193120504900313.

Gorman JC, Cooke NJ, Winner JL: Measuring team situation awareness in decentralized command and control systems. Ergonomics. 2006; 49: 1312-1325. DOI: 10.1080/00140130600612788.

Salas E, Prince C, Baker DP, et al.: Situation awareness in team performance: Implications for measurement and training. Hum Factors. 1995; 37(1): 123-136.

Samad T: Pragmatics and its implications for multiagent systems. J Mind Theory. 2008; 193-216.

Vieweg SE: Situational awareness in mass emergency: A behavioral and linguistic analysis of microblogged communications. 2012. Available at http://works.bepress.com/vieweg/15. Accessed December 15, 2021.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.0731

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Emergency Management