Anticipation or resilience in times of emergent crisis? COVID-19 responses in the United States, Taiwan, and South Korea
Keywords:COVID-19 response, crisis management, international and comparative studies, qualitative research, content analysis, public health policy
This research employs Wildavsky’s two strategies—anticipation and resilience—as our conceptual framework to compare COVID-19 policies in the United States, South Korea, and Taiwan. Also, following Handmer and Dovers’ three types of resilience, we develop theory-driven codes and then explain how governmental structures and cultural factors influenced governmental responses. We found that a key response to this pandemic is arguably correlated with how quick and flexible a government can adopt different types of resilient strategies. Our research provides a foundation for governmental emergency response discussions and management strategies to better cope with public health crises in the future.
Dunlop CA, Ongaro E, Baker K: Researching COVID-19: A research agenda for public policy and administration scholars. Public Policy Adm. 2020; 35(4): 365-383. DOI: 10.1177/0952076720939631.
Capano G, Howlett M: The knowns and unknowns of policy instrument analysis: Policy tools and the current research agenda on policy mixes. SAGE Open. 2020; 10(1): 215824401990056. DOI: 10.1177/2158244019900568.
Howlett M, Tosun J: The Routledge Handbook of Policy Styles. Abingdon: Routledge, 2021.
Wildavsky A: Searching for Safety. 4th ed. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 1988.
Handmer JW, Dovers SR: A typology of resilience: Rethinking institutions for sustainable development. Ind Environ Crisis Q. 1996; 9(4): 482-511. DOI: 10.1177/108602669600900403.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Trends in number of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the US reported to CDC, by state/territory. Available at https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-datatracker/#trends_dailytrendscases. Accessed April 7, 2021.
Johns Hopkins University & Medicine: New COVID-19 cases worldwide. Available at https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/new-cases. Accessed April 7, 2021.
Taylor DB: A timeline of the coronavirus pandemic. The New York Times, March 17, 2021. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/article/coronavirus-timeline.html. Accessed April 5, 2021.
Office of the Governor, State of Florida: 20-139 executive order. Phase 2: Safe. Smart. Step-by-Step. Plan for Florida’s Recovery. 2020. Available at https://www.flgov.com/wp-content/uploads/orders/2020/EO_20-139.pdf. Accessed April 6, 2021.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: COVID-19 travel recommendations by destination. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/map-and-travel-notices.html. Accessed April 9, 2021.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Guidance for COVID-19. 2021. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/communication/guidance.html. Accessed March 15, 2021.
USA.gov: Government response to coronavirus, COVID-19. 2021. Available at https://www.usa.gov/federal-covid-response. Accessed March 23, 2021.
The White House: Opening up America again. 2020. Available at https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Guidelines-for-Opening-Up-America-Again.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2021.
The White House: National strategy for the COVID-19 response and pandemic preparedness. 2021. Available at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/National-Strategy-for-the-COVID-19-Response-and-Pandemic-Preparedness.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2021.
Howard J, Huang A, Li Z, et al.: An evidence review of face masks against COVID-19. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2021; 118(4): e2014564118.
Magleby D, Light P, Nemacheck C: Government by the People, AP* Edition. 25th ed. New York: Pearson Higher Education, 2014.
Bazzi S, Fiszbein M, Gebresilasse M: Rugged individualism’ and collective (in)action during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Public Econ. 2021; 195: 104357. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104357.
World Health Organization: Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)–Republic of Korea. Disease outbreak news. 2015. Available at https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseaseoutbreak-news/item/19-june-2015-mers-korea-en. Accessed April 14, 2021.
Park SH, Kim YS, Jung Y, et al.: Outbreaks of Middle east respiratory syndrome in two hospitals initiated by a single patient in Daejeon, South Korea. Infect Chemother. 2016; 48(2): 99.
Oh S: South Korea’s success against COVID-19. The Regulatory Review. 2020. Available at https://www.theregreview.org/2020/05/14/oh-south-korea-success-against-covid-19/. Accessed April 10, 2021.
Seo S, Cha J: Local government response to COVID-19 from a governance perspective: Focusing on the case of Busan metropolitan city. Local Soc Politics. 2021; 4(1): 159-192.
Ministry of Health and Welfare: MERS whitepaper: Learning from MERS experiences. 2016. Available at http://www.mohw.go.kr. Accessed April 12, 2021.
Korean Law Information Centre: Infectious disease control and prevention act. 2021. Available at https://elaw.klri.re.kr/eng_mobile/ganadaDetail.do?hseq=37239&type=abc&key=INFECTIOUS%20DISEASE%20CONTROL%20AND%20PREVENTION%20ACT¶m=I. Accessed April 10, 2021.
Moon MJ: Fighting COVID-19 with agility, transparency, and participation: Wicked policy problems and new governance challenges. Public Adm Rev. 2020; 80(4): 651-656. DOI: 10.1111/puar.13214.
Huang IYF: Fighting COVID-19 through government initiatives and collaborative governance: The Taiwan experience. Public Adm Rev. 2020; 80(4): 665-670. DOI: 10.1111/puar.13239.
Lin C, Braund WE, Auerbach J, et al.: Policy decisions and use of information technology to fight 2019 novel coronavirus disease, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020; 26(7): 1506-1512. DOI: 10.3201/eid2607.200574.
Taiwan Centers for Disease Control: CECC confirms 8 more imported cases; cases arrive in Taiwan from Oman, the Philippines, Egypt, and Vietnam. 2021. Available at https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Category/ListContent/tov1jahKUv8RGSbvmzLwFg?uaid=LFtHOQkNuUQDcxsoKOO9ZA. Accessed April 11, 2021.
Chen CM, Jyan HW, Chien SC, et al.: Containing COVID-19 among 627,386 persons in contact with the diamond princess cruise ship passengers who disembarked in Taiwan: Big data analytics. J Med Internet Res. 2020; 22(5): e19540. DOI: 10.2196/19540.
Dynes RR: Community emergency planning: False assumptions and inappropriate analogies. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1994; 12(2): 141-158.
Harrald JR: Agility and discipline: Critical success factors for disaster response. Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci. 2006; 604(604): 256-272.
Neal DM, Phillips BD: Effective emergency management: Reconsidering the bureaucratic approach. Disasters. 1995; 19(4): 327-337. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.1995.tb00353.x.
Neal D, Webb G: Structural barriers to using the National Incident Management System (Chapter 4). In Learning from Catastrophe: Quick Response Research in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina. Boulder, CO: Institute of Behavioural Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, 2006.
Schneider SK: Human behaviour and governmental activity in disasters: Two sets of norms (Chapter 4). In Dealing with Disaster: Public Management in Crisis Situations. 2nd ed. New York: ME. Sharpe, 2011.
Coetzee C, Niekerk DV, Raju E: Disaster resilience and complex adaptive system theory. Disaster Preven Manag. 2016; 25(2): 196-211. DOI: 10.1108/DPM-07-2015-0153.
Comfort LK: Risk, security, and disaster management. Annu Rev Polit Sci. 2005; 8: 335-356. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.polisci.8.081404.075608.
Comfort LK, Sungu Y, Johnson D, et al.: Complex systems in crisis: Anticipation and resilience in dynamic environments. J Contingen Crisis Manag. 2001; 9(3): 144-158. DOI: 10.1111/1468-5973.00164.
Gao G, Liu W, Liu P, et al.: Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment and animal samples of the Huanan seafood market. Res Square. 2022. DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-1370392/v1.
Pekar JE, Magee A, Parker E, et al.: SARS-CoV-2 emergence very likely resulted from at least two zoonotic events. Zenodo. 2022. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6291628.
Worobey M, Levy JI, Serrano LMM, et al.: The Huanan market was the epicenter of SARS-CoV-2 emergence. Zenodo. 2022. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6299600.
Berg B, Lune H: Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: Pearson Education, 2012.
Creswell JW, Poth CN: Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2018.
Patton MQ: Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc, 2002.
DeCuir-Gunby JT, Marshall PL, McCulloch AW: Developing and using a codebook for the analysis of interview data: An example from a professional development research project. Field Methods. 2011; 23(2): 136-155. DOI: 10.1177/1525822X10388468.
Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of China (R.O.C): Creating a line of defense at the border and keeping the virus out. 2020. Available at https://covid19.mohw.gov.tw/en/cp-4784-53773-206.html. Accessed April 10, 2021.
The Government of the Republic of Korea: Tackling COVID-19. Health, quarantine and economic measures: Korean experience. 2020. Available at https://ecck.or.kr/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Tackling-COVID-19-Health-Quarantine-and-Economic-Measuresof-South-Korea.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2021.
The Government of the Republic of Korea: COVID-19, testing time for resilience: In recovering from COVID-19: Korean experience. 2020. Available at https://www.mois.go.kr/eng/bbs/type002/commonSelectBoardArticle.do?bbsId=BBSMSTR_000000000022&nttId=77016. Accessed April 13, 2021.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC activities and initiatives supporting the COVID-19 response and the president’s plan for open America up again. 2020. Available at https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/88478. Accessed April 7, 2021.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Implementation of mitigation strategies for communities with local COVID-19 transmission. 2020. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/community-mitigation-strategy.pdf. Accessed April 7, 2021.
Comfort LK, Kapucu N, Ko K, et al.: Crisis decision-making on a global scale: Transition from cognition to collective action under threat of COVID-19. Public Admin Rev. 2020; 80(4): 616-622. DOI: 10.1111/puar.13252.
Dobrzyn E: Gov. Ron DeSantis says most of Florida will enter phase 2 of reopening Friday. ClickOrlando.com, June 3, 2020. Available at https://www.clickorlando.com/news/local/2020/06/03/gov-ron-desantis-says-most-of-florida-will-enter-phase-2-of-reopeningfriday/. Accessed April 8, 2021.
Ritchie H, Mathieu E, Rodés-Guirao L, et al.: Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). 2020. Available at https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus. Accessed May 8, 2022.
Control Yuan: Investigation to child human rights and other relevant legal protection of xiaoming and his family staying in China during the period of COVID 19. 2020. Available at https://www.cy.gov.tw/News_Content.aspx?n=125&s=20026. Accessed April 12, 2021.
How to Cite
Copyright 2007-2023, Weston Medical Publishing, LLC and Journal of Emergency Management. All Rights Reserved