Protecting health facilities during wars in the COVID-19 era: A case study of the Indonesian Hospital in the Gaza Strip in the Palestinian Territories




Gaza Strip, Indonesian Hospital, war 2021, coronavirus disease 2019


This case study aimed at assessing the impact of the May 2021 War on medical personnel who worked during the coronavirus pandemic. This study was conducted at the Indonesian Hospital in the northern Gaza Strip. This case study included a sample of 391 participants. Of these participants, 100 employees of the Indonesian Hospital were selected randomly. The results revealed that the war has affected social distancing practices and adherence to health guidelines related to the pandemic, an impossible luxury to a large degree, with a mean rate of 4.54. There was a sharp shortage of medical supplies and medicines that have been affected by the war, which in turn affected the treatment of patients with coronavirus with a mean rate of 4.54. In addition, the medical staff faced mild exposure to gases due to military actions, with a mean rate of 3.78. This study recommended that vulnerable countries should be protected under the International Humanitarian Law and be given the necessity of respecting and protecting healthcare. In addition, the denial of medical treatment may be considered cruel or inhumane behavior and an affront to human dignity, constituting war crimes as grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions.

Author Biographies

Alaa M. Musalam, PhD

University College of Science and Technology, Khan Yunis, Palestine

Nizam M. El-Ashgar, PhD

Faculty of Science, Crisis and Disaster Management Program, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine

Ahmed S. Alhana, MA

Radiology Department, Indonesian Hospital in North Gaza, Gaza, Palestine

Raed E. S. Abunamous, MA

Palestinian Crisis Management Group, College of Science, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine

Feras Al Kharraz, MA

Department of Communication and Media Studies, Cyprus International University, Cyprus

Sofiya A. Musalam

Student, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine


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How to Cite

Musalam, A. M., N. M. El-Ashgar, A. S. Alhana, R. E. S. Abunamous, F. Al Kharraz, and S. A. Musalam. “Protecting Health Facilities During Wars in the COVID-19 Era: A Case Study of the Indonesian Hospital in the Gaza Strip in the Palestinian Territories”. Journal of Emergency Management, vol. 21, no. 5, Nov. 2023, pp. 453-67, doi:10.5055/jem.0793.