AI and crisis leadership: Using the POP-DOC Loop to explore potential implications and opportunities for leaders




crisis leadership, emergency management, disaster preparedness, disaster response, artificial intelligence


In the evolving landscape of crisis leadership and emergency management, artificial intelligence (AI) emerges as a potentially transformative force with far-reaching implications. Utilizing the POP-DOC Loop, a comprehensive framework for crisis leadership analysis and decision-making, this paper delves into the diverse roles that AI is poised to play in shaping the future of crisis planning and response. The POP-DOC Loop serves as a structured methodology, encompassing key elements such as information gathering, contextual analysis informed by social determinants, enhanced predictive modeling, guided decision-making, strategic action implementation, and appropriate communication. Rather than offer definitive predictions, this review aims to catalyze exploration and discussion, equipping researchers and practitioners to anticipate future contingencies. The paper concludes by examining the limitations and challenges posed by AI within this specialized context.

Author Biographies

Eric J. McNulty, MA

National Preparedness Leadership Initiative at Harvard University, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Brian R. Spisak, PhD

National Preparedness Leadership Initiative at Harvard University, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Leonard J. Marcus, PhD

National Preparedness Leadership Initiative at Harvard University, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Amal Cheema, MPH

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Ravi Dhawan

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Attila Hertelendy, PhD

Department of Information Systems and Business Analytics, College of Business, Florida International University, University Park, Florida

Shawna Novak, MD, MA, MMSC-GHD

Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts; The Canada International Scientific Exchange Program, Toronto, Ontario, Canada


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How to Cite

McNulty, E. J., B. R. Spisak, L. J. Marcus, A. Cheema, R. Dhawan, A. Hertelendy, and S. Novak. “AI and Crisis Leadership: Using the POP-DOC Loop to Explore Potential Implications and Opportunities for Leaders”. Journal of Emergency Management, vol. 22, no. 2, Apr. 2024, pp. 119-27, doi:10.5055/jem.0836.