Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Approaches to emergency management teaching at the master’s level

David Alexander, PhD

Abstract


Training and education enable emergency managers to deal with complex situations, create durable networks of people with appropriate expertise, and ensure that knowledge is utilized to improve resilience in the face of disaster risk. Although there is a discrete literature on emergency management training, few attempts have been made to create an overview that discusses the key issues and proposes a standardized approach. This article examines the nature of training and education in emergency and disaster management. It analyzes the composition and requirements of courses at the master’s degree level, which is considered to be the most appropriate tier for in-depth instruction in this field. This article defines “training” and “education” in the context of emergency management courses. It reviews the developing profile of the emergency manager in the light of training requirements. This article examines the question of whether emergency management is a branch of management science or whether it is something distinct and separate. Attention is given to the composition of a core curriculum and to the most appropriate pedagogical forms of delivering it. The article reviews the arguments for and against standardization of the curriculum and describes some of the pedagogical methods for delivering courses. Briefly, it considers the impact on training and education of new pedagogic methods based on information technology. It is concluded that the master’s level is particularly suited to emergency and crisis management education, as it enables students to complement the in-depth knowledge they acquired in their disciplinary first degrees with a broader synthetic approach at the postgraduate level. Some measures of standardization of course offerings are desirable, in favor of creating a core curriculum that will ensure that essential core knowledge is imparted. Education and training in this field should include problem-solving approaches that enable students to learn practical skills as well as theory.


Keywords


crisis management, emergency management, disaster management, higher education, master’s degree, training

Full Text:

PDF

References


IFRCRCS: World Disasters Report: Focus on Hunger and Malnutrition. Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2011.

Swiss Reinsurance Company: Natural Catastrophes and Manmade Disasters in 2010: A Year of Devastating and Costly Events. Zürich: Swiss Reinsurance Company, 2010.

Alexander DE: Cognitive mapping as an emergency management training exercise. J Crisis Contingency Manage. 2004; 12(4):150-159.

Simon N: Perspective on people. Part 5: Social dimensions of interagency collaboration: growing and managing the collaborative relationship. J Emerg Manage. 2006; 4(5): 13-19.

Emergens Association: Emergens: Coordinamento delle attività di protezione civile. Available at www.emergens.it. Accessed March 8, 2012.

Institute of Civil Defence and Disaster Studies: Available at www.icpem.org. Accessed March 8, 2012.

Coppola DP: The importance of international disaster management studies in the field of emergency management, In Hubbard JA (ed.): Emergency Management in Higher Education: Current Practices and Conversations. Fairfax, VA: Public Entity Research Institute, 2008: Chapter 5.

Stambler KS, Barbera JA: Engineering the incident command and multiagency coordination systems. J Homeland Security Emerg Manage. 2008, 8(1): Article 43.

Buck DA, Trainor JE, Aguirre BE: A critical evaluation of the incident command system and NIMS. J Homeland Security Emerg Manage. 2006; 3(3): Article 1.

Humphress R: Building an emergency response competency system: Optimizing emergency personnel mobilization. J Homeland Security Emerg Manage. 2007; 4(3): Article 7.

Drabczyk AL: Ready, set, go: Recruitment, training, coordination, and retention values for all-hazard partnerships. J Homeland Security Emerg Manage. 2007; 4(3): Article 12.

Weichselgartner J: Disaster mitigation: the concept of vulnerability revisited. Disaster Prevention Manage. 2001; 10(2): 85-94.

Perry RW, Quarantelli EL (eds): What is A Disaster? New Answers to Old Questions. Philadelphia: Xlibris Press, 2005.

Quarantelli EL: What is a disaster? Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1995; 13(3): 221-229.

Quarantelli EL: Epilogue: Where we have been and where we might go. In Quarantelli EL (ed.): What is a Disaster? Perspectives on the Question. London: Routledge, 1998: 234-273.

Winch C: Education needs training. Oxford Rev Educ. 1995; 21(3): 315-325.

Garavan T: Training, development, education and learning: Different or the same? J Eur Ind Training. 1997; 21(2): 39-50.

Britton NR: Whither the emergency manager? Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1999; 17(2): 223-235.

Stehr SD: The changing roles and responsibilities of the local emergency manager: An empirical study. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 2007; 25(1): 37-55.

Britton NR: Whither the emergency manager? Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1999; 17(2): 223-235.

Cwiak CL: Emergency management higher education: Demographics, projections, and challenges. In Hubbard JA (ed.): Emergency Management in Higher Education: Current Practices and Conversations. Fairfax, VA: Public Entity Research Institute, 2008: Chapter 10.

Blanchard-Boehm RD: The influence of past experience with hazards on future response: A consideration for scientists and emergency managers. J Acad Business Admin. 1995; 2(1): 21-37.

Elliott D, Swartz E, Herbane B (eds.): Business Continuity Management: A Crisis Management Approach. London: Routledge, 2001.

Perry RW, Quarantelli EL (eds.): What is a Disaster? New Answers to Old Questions. Philadelphia: Xlibris Press, 2005.

Foster HD: Disaster Planning: The Preservation of Life and Property. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1980.

Kowalski-Trakofler KM, Vaught C, Scharf T: Judgment and decision making under stress: an overview for emergency managers. Int J Emerg Manage. 2003; 1(3): 278-289.

Van Lakerveld J, Van Der Haar S, Wartna S: The professional development of planners, developers and managers of crisis team exercises. Int J Emerg Manage. 2008; 5(3-4): 209-218.

Senge PM: The Fifth Discipline: the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Currency Doubleday, 2006.

Williams BK, Szaro RC, Shapiro CD: Adaptive Management: The U.S. Department of the Interior Technical Guide. Washington, DC: US Department of the Interior, 2007.

Holling CS (ed.): Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. IIASA International Series on Applied Systems Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley, 1978.

Hristidis V, Chen S-C, Li T, et al.: Survey of data management and analysis in disaster situations. J Systems Software. 2010; 83(10): 1701-1714.

Fagel MJ: Principles of Emergency Management and Emergency Operations Centers (EOC): EOC Planning and Design. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2010.

Bissell RA, Bumbak A, Levy M, et al.: Long-term global threat assessment: Challenging new roles for emergency managers. J Emerg Manage. 2009; 7(1): 19-37.

Alexander DE: Towards the development of standards in emergency management training and education. Disaster Prev Manage. 2003; 12(2): 113-123.

Archer F, Seynaeve G: International guidelines and standards for education and training to reduce the consequences of events that may threaten the health status of a community. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007; 22(2): 120-130.

Walia A: Community based disaster preparedness: Need for a standardized training module. Aust J Emerg Manage. 2008; 23(2): 68-73.

NFPA: Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs 2007 Edition. Quincy, MA: US National Fire Protection Association, 2007.

Kleiboer M: Simulation methodology for crisis management support. J Contingencies Crisis Manage. 1997; 5(4): 198-206.

Alexander DE: Towards the development of standards in emergency management training and education. Disaster Prev Manage. 2003; 12(2): 113-123.

Neal DM: Reconsidering the phases of disasters. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1997; 15(2): 239-264.

Birkmann J: Indicators and criteria for measuring vulnerability: Theoretical bases and requirements, In Birkmann J (ed.): Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster Resilient Societies. Tokyo: United Nations University Press: 2006: 55-77.

Alexander DE: The content of emergency training programs. In Fontanari P, Pittino S, Alexander D, et al. (eds.): La protezione civile verso gli anni 2000. Florence, Italy: CISPRO, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 1999: 309-316.

Alexander DE: Scenario methodology for teaching principles of emergency management. Disaster Prev Manage. 2000; 9(2): 89-97.

Alexander DE: Cognitive mapping as an emergency management training exercise. J Crisis Contingency Manage. 2004; 12(4): 150-159.

Quarantelli EL: Problematical aspects of the information/communication revolution for disaster planning and research: Ten non-technical issues and questions. Disaster Prev Manage. 1997; 6(2):94-106.

Cottam M, Preston T: An overview of the value and use of simulations in the academic, business and policy communities. J Contingencies Crisis Manage. 1997; 5(4): 195-197.

Hermann MG: In conclusion: The multiple pay-offs of crisis simulations. J Contingencies Crisis Manage. 1997; 5(4): 241-243.

Kleiboer M: Simulation methodology for crisis management support. J Contingencies Crisis Manage. 1997; 5(4): 198-206.

Kincaid JP, Donovan J, Pettitt B: Simulation techniques for training emergency response. Int J Emerg Manage. 2003; 1(3): 238-246.

Renda-Tanali I, Abdul-Hamid H: An assessment of the benefits of online scenario simulation tools in homeland security and emergency management education. J Homeland Security Emerg Manage. 2011; 8(2): Article 16.

Borodzicz E, van Haperen K: Individual and group learning in crisis simulations. J Contingencies Crisis Manage. 2002; 10(3): 139-147.

Neal DM: Teaching Introduction to Disaster Management: A comparison of classroom and virtual environments. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 2004; 22(1): 103-116.

Oyola-Yemaiel A,Wilson J: Three essential strategies for emergency management professionalization in the U.S. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 2005; 23(1): 77-84.

Alexander DE: Making research on geological hazards relevant to stakeholders’ needs. Quaternary Int.2007; 171/172:186-192.

Kusler JA: Liability as a dilemma for local managers. Publ Admin Rev. 1985; 45(S): 118-122.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.2013.0128

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Emergency Management