Difference in stress-related indicators between employees experiencing partial and complete lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan





cognitive appraisal, complete lockdown, coping, COVID-19 pandemic, fear, partial lockdown, stress


Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the stress experience of employees facing to differentiated types of lockdown situations: total vs. partial. It also aimed to identify the cognitive appraisal, coping, stress, and fear of contracting COVID-19 associated with lock down situations among employees.

Method: A cross-sectional research design was employed. The sample comprises two groups (n = 490 in each group), complete lockdown (people working from home) and partial lockdown (people going to workplace), and was drawn from Pakistan using purposive sampling technique. Stress Appraisal Measure, Brief COPE Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, and Fear of Contracting COVID-19 Questionnaire were used to measure cognitive appraisal, coping, stress, and fear, respectively.

Results: Independent sample t-test showed that the threat and uncontrollable appraisal was high in people going to workplace as compared to people working from home. Results of binary logistic regression showed that people going to workplace were more likely to cope with COVID-19 situation through seeking instrumental support, behavior disengagement, acceptance, and religion as compared to people working from home. Moreover, people working from home were 0.84 times more likely to cope through emotional support than people going to workplace. Fear was found to be 1.1 times more likely associated with people going to workplace than people working from home.

Conclusion: This study would help administrative authorities and government institutions in designing mental health services for working population. It would help the emergency departments in devising first aid management plan to deal with the psychological needs of the workers under pandemic/lockdown situations.


Author Biographies

Anam Ali, MS

Clinical Psychologist, Department of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, The Children’s Hospital & The Institute of Child Health (CH&ICH), Lahore, Pakistan

Sadia Abbas, MS

Clinical Psychologist, Center for Clinical Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Ali Asad Khan, FCPS

Assistant Professor, North Medicine Unit, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan

Ali Salman Khan, MBBS

Medical Registrar, Acute Medical Unit, North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, England

Hafiz Syed Mohsin Abbas, PhD

College of Public Administration, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China


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How to Cite

Ali, MS, A., S. Abbas, MS, A. A. Khan, FCPS, A. S. Khan, MBBS, and H. S. M. Abbas, PhD. “Difference in Stress-Related Indicators Between Employees Experiencing Partial and Complete Lockdowns During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Pakistan”. Journal of Emergency Management, vol. 19, no. 7, Oct. 2021, pp. 177-92, doi:10.5055/jem.0621.